This is a study of language planning using Norwegian as a case study. 2014 marks the 200th anniversary of the birth of the Norwegian nation following centuries of Danish rule. This book gives a comprehensive account of that entire 200-year period, and analyses how Norwegians defined, fought over, and developed their own independent Scandinavian language, differentiating it from Danish and Swedish, through language planning. The almost two centuries of Norwegian language planning and conflict encompassed an extraordinary sociolinguistic experiment which led to decades of intense linguistic struggle and which has had no parallel anywhere else in the world. This fascinating book-length case study provides students and scholars in sociolinguistics, historical linguistics, language planning and language policy with a richly detailed insight into the uniqueness of the Norwegian language development.
Ernst Hakon Jahr is Professor of Scandinavian Linguistics Department of Nordic and Media Studies and Dean, Faculty of Humanities and Education, at the University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
Preface; Land and people, language and language planning; Part I: The Nationalist Period, 1814-1917; Before the start of language planning: 1814-1845; A language based on upper-middle-class speech or peasant dialects? The programmes proposed by Knud Knudsen and Ivar Aasen; The language question becomes a major political issue: 1860-1907; Two Norwegian written standards - is linguistic reconciliation possible? Early 20th century up to the 1917 language reforms; Part II: The Sociopolitical Period, 1917-1966; The post-war language struggle (1945-1966) to counter the sociolinguistic experiment of 1938; Part III: From a Single-Standard to a Two-Standard Strategy; The end of the single-standard policy (1966-2002): reforms in 1981 and 2005 (for Bokmal) and 2012 (for Nynorsk); Summary and concluding remarks; References; List of terms for language varieties discussed in this book; Timeline for the important terms in this book and the different written varieties; Timetable of important events for language planning and conflict in modern Norway.