A vivid and comprehensive picture of the current state of research in all directions of logic and philosophy of science. The book presents a wide combination of papers containing relevant technical results in the foundations of science and papers devoted to conceptual analyses, deeply rooted in advanced present-day research. Audience: The volume is attractive both for specialists in foundational questions and scholars interested in general epistemology.
Editorial. Part I: Epistemology and Philosophy of Language. A Realism, Idealism, and General Terms; E. Bencivenga. From Normal Machine to Social Colony: Toward a Complex Dynamical Philosophy of Science; W.E. Herfel, C.A. Hooker. Observation and Reliable Detection; P. Humphreys. Conceptual Idealism and Stove's Gem; A. Musgrave. Holism in Artificial Intelligence; C. Penco. Part II: Philosophy of Probability. Model Selection for Causal Theories; B. Desjardins. Nonstandard Analysis and a Classification of Probability Spaces; S. Fajardo. Some Remarks on Objective Chance (F.P. Ramsey, K.R. Popper and N.R. Campbell); M.C. Galavotti. Misapprehensions about Significance Tests and Bayesianism; M.G. Sandrini. Part III: Philosophy and Foundations of Physics. The Quantum Probabilistic Approach to the Foundations of Quantum Theory: Urns and Chameleons; L. Accardi. The Creation-discovery-view: Towards a Possible Explanation of Quantum Reality; D. Aerts, B. Coecke. Virtual Reality: Consequences of No-Go Theorems for the Modal Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics; G. Bacciagaluppi, P. Vermaas. Is Chaos Indeterministic? R.C. Bishop, F.M. Kronz. Wormholes and Timelike Curves: Is There Room for the Grandfather Paradox? G. Boniolo. John von Neumann met Kurt Goedel: Undecidable Statements in Quantum Mechanics; T. Breuer. Set-theoretical Models for Quantum Systems; N.C. da Costa, D. Krause. Non-Ideal Measurements and Physical Possibility in Quantum Mechanics; M. Del Seta, M. Suarez. Time, Relativity, and the Spatiality of Mental Events; M. Dorato. Bell-type Inequalities and Orthomodular Lattices; A. Dvurecenskij. An Informal Presentation of Semantic Realism and Its Solution of Quantum Paradoxes; C. Garola. Individualistic versus Statistical Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics; P. Mittelstaedt. The Locality Scandal of Quantum Mechanics; F.A. Muller. Uncertainty and Dependence in Classical and Quantum Logic the Role of Triangular Norms. Quantum Logics and Quantum Measurements; M. Navara, P. Ptak. Quantum Logics and Quantum Measurements; S. Pulmannova. Attempt at the Logical Explanation of the Wave-particle duality; J. Pykacz. Part IV: History of Science. The Bohr-Einstein Photon Box Debate; D. Dieks. Kantianism and Physics from the 19th to the 20th Century. Part V: Science and Music. Epimoric Ratios and Greek Musical Theory; F. Bellissima. Music and Science; G. Toraldo di Francia.