Laser Modification of the Wettability Characteristics of Engineering Materials (Engineering Research Series (Rep) v. 3)
By: Lin Li (author), Jonathan R. Lawrence (author)Hardback
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The techniques available to engineers for the modification of a material's wettability characteristics are invariably extremely complex and difficult to control. The use of lasers, however, has been shown to provide a clean, accurate and versatile way of modifying and improving the wettability characteristics of a wide range of engineering materials. Lawrence and Li have amply demonstrated the pracitability of employing different types of lasers to effect changes in the wettability characteristics of a number of engineering materials of ceramics, metals and plastics for improved adhesion and bonding. "Laser Modification of the Wettability Characteristics of Engineering Materials" makes extensive and comparative studies of the behaviour and properties of composite, ceramic, metallic and polymeric materials. The final chapter, practical applications of the use of lasers in modifying material behaviour, is particularly useful as it puts this cutting edge research in industrial context. The authors have extended the scope of their industrially based research to present a very useful, coherent source for engineers.
This volume should be of value to those engineers and materials technologists working in industry or research institutions interested in the latest developments of property manipulation. Tribologists, surface technologists, those concerned with protective coatings and bonding materials, as well as anyone interested in laser technology, opto-electronics, marking and laser engraving should find "Laser Modification" a useful guide.
DR. JONATHAN LAWRENCE gained his PhD on laser materials processing from University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (UMIST). He has published many papers in the field. His current research interests include: laser modification of the wettability characteristics of bio-materials, laser treatment of building materials, and laser enamelling. PROFESSOR LIN LI is the director of the Laser Processing Research Centre at UMIST. His research interests include: laser machining and drilling, rapid prototyping, laser surface engineering, and mathematical modelling.
Series Editor's Foreword xi Acknowledgements xiii Dedication xiv Introduction 1 Chapter 1 Laser Fundamentals and Contemporary Industrial Lasers 1.1 Laser operating principles 5 1.1.1 Introduction 5 1.1.2 Stimulated emission and amplification 5 1.1.3 Population inversion and non-equilibrium pumping 7 1.1.4 Resonant cavity 8 1.2 Contemporary industrial lasers 9 1.2.1 Introduction 9 1.2.2 The CO2 laser 9 1.2.3 The Nd:YAG laser 11 1.2.4 The excimer laser 11 1.2.5 The diode laser 12 1.2.6 Comparison of the general operating features 21 1.3 Laser beam properties 22 1.3.1 Monochromaticity 22 1.3.2 Wavelength 22 1.3.3 Polarization 23 1.3.4 Coherence 24 1.3.5 Mode structure 25 1.3.6 Divergence 26 1.3.7 Numerical aperture for fibre-delivered beams 27 1.3.8 Brightness 28 1.3.9 Beam dimensions 28 1.3.10 Focused beam characteristics 30 1.3.11 Energy and power output 31 1.3.12 Energy transfer and efficiency 32 Chapter 2 Basic Background Theory of Wettability, Adhesion, and Bonding 2.1 Introduction 33 2.2 Wetting and contact angle 34 2.2.1 Contact angle 34 2.2.2 Types of wetting 35 2.2.3 Spreading and the spreading coefficient 37 2.2.4 Contact angle hysteresis 38 2.2.5 Static and dynamic contact angles 39 2.2.6 The effect of surface roughness on contact angle 41 2.2.7 The effect of chemical composition on contact angle 41 2.2.8 The effect of temperature on contact angle 42 2.3 Surface energy and the dispersive/polar characteristics 42 2.4 The bonding of liquids and solids 45 2.4.1 Physical bonding 45 2.4.2 Mechanical bonding 45 2.4.3 Chemical bonding 46 Chapter 3 Laser Surface Modification of Selected Composite Materials for Improved Wettability Characteristics 3.1 Introduction 49 3.2 Experimental procedures 51 3.2.1 Materials 51 3.2.2 Laser processing procedure 51 3.2.3 Wettability characteristics analysis procedure 52 3.3 The effects of high-power diode laser radiation on the wettability characteristics of ordinary Portland cement 54 3.3.1 The general effects of high-power diode laser radiation 54 3.3.2 Wettability and surface energy characteristics 56 3.4 The effects of laser radiation on the wettability and bonding characteristics of the Al2O3/SiO2-based composite material 59 3.4.1 The general effects of laser radiation 59 3.4.2 Wettability and surface energy characteristics 66 3.4.3 High-power diode laser-induced solidification microstructures and the resulting effects on wettability characteristics 76 3.4.4 Bonding mechanisms between the high-power diode laser-treated Al2O3/SiO2-based composite material and enamel 79 3.5 Summary 81 Chapter 4 High-Power Diode Laser Modification of Selected Engineering Ceramic Materials for Improved Wettability Characteristics 4.1 Introduction 83 4.2 Experimental procedures 84 4.2.1 Preparation of materials 84 4.2.2 Laser processing procedure 84 4.3 High-power diode laser modification of the wettability characteristics of selected engineering ceramic materials 84 4.3.1 Contact angle and surface energy analysis procedure 84 4.3.2 Effects of high-power diode laser radiation on contact angle characteristics 84 4.3.3 Surface energy and the dispersive/polar characteristics 87 4.4 Discussion of high-power diode laser wettability characteristics modification 90 4.5 Summary 90 Chapter 5 Laser Modification of Selected Metallic Materials for Improved Wettability Characteristics 5.1 Introduction 91 5.2 Experimental procedures 92 5.2.1 Materials and laser processing procedures 92 5.2.2 Wettability characteristics analysis procedure 93 5.3 Effects of laser radiation on the wettability characteristics 94 5.3.1 Variations in surface roughness characteristics 94 5.3.2 Variations in surface O2 content 96 5.3.3 Surface energy and the dispersive/polar characteristics 97 5.4 Discussion of laser-effected modification of wettability characteristics 98 5.5 Bonding mechanisms between the high-power diode laser-treated mild steel and enamel 102 5.6 Summary 103 Chapter 6 Laser Modification of Selected Polymer Materials for Improved Wettability Characteristics 6.1 Introduction 105 6.2 Experimental procedures 107 6.2.1 Materials and laser processing procedure 107 6.2.2 Wettability characteristics analysis procedures 108 6.3 Effects of laser radiation on wettability characteristics 109 6.3.1 Variations in surface roughness characteristics 110 6.3.2 Variations in surface O2 content 113 6.3.3 Surface energy and the dispersive/polar characteristics 113 6.4 Discussion of laser-effected wettability characteristics modification 116 6.5 Summary 118 Chapter 7 Practical Applications of Lasers for the Modification of Wettability Characteristics 7.1 Introduction 119 7.2 A two-stage ceramic tile grout sealing process 120 7.2.1 Application background 120 7.2.2 Sealing process development 122 7.2.3 Seal characterization and performance testing 123 7.2.4 Discussion of results 136 7.2.5 Summary 144 7.3 The enamelling of ordinary Portland cement by means of high-power diode laser radiation 146 7.3.1 General results of high-power diode laser enamelling 146 7.3.2 Mechanical, physical, and chemical properties 148 7.3.3 Summary 153 7.4 The enamelling of carbon steel by means of high-power diode laser radiation 154 7.4.1 Enamel glaze characteristics 154 7.4.2 Mechanical, physical, and chemical characteristics 155 7.4.3 Summary 157 Chapter 8 Conclusions 159 References 163 Index 175
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