This monograph provides a comprehensive survey of the parameters involved in textile washing, in particular the action of detergents. The authors describe the physical and chemical principles of the washing process, as well as the composition, production and action of household and industrial detergents. Furthermore, products and processes in use not only in Europe but also in Japan and the USA are surveyed. A special chapter is devoted to modern methods of detergent analysis.
Throughout the book particular emphasis is laid on ecological and toxicological aspects. A discussion of the economic importance of detergents and relevant information about textile types and washing machines complete the book. This publication is not only intended for specialists in industry and academia, it will also give environmental consultants, journalists and other interested readers insight into the complex field of laundry detergents.
Historical Review Physical Chemistry of the Washing Process Influence of the Water Types of Soil The Soil Removal Process Further Processes Concluding Remarks Detergent Ingredients Surfactants Builders Bleaches Further Detergents Ingredients Household Laundry Products Heavy Duty Detergents Specialty Detergents Laundry Aids Industrial and Institutional Detergents Production of Powder Detergents Technology Overview Description of Manufacturing Processes Densification Processes Raw Materials Analysis of the Composition Detergent Ingredients Detergent Analysis Sample Preparation Analytical Methods Sources of Information Test Methods for Laundry Detergents Laboratory Methods Practical Evaluation Consumer Tests Economic Aspects Detergent Components Detergents Fabric Softeners Ecology Laundry, Waste Water and the Environment Contribution of Laundry to the Sewage Load Detergent Laws General Criteria for the Ecological Evaluation of Detergent Chemicals Ecological Characterization of Main Detergent Ingredients Toxicology Detergent Ingredients Finished Detergents Conclusions Textiles Washing Machines Household Washing Machines Laundry Dryers Washing Machines for Institutional Use References