This study utilizes the perceptions of criminal investigators of the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) to describe the normative structure of an organization in its social context. The legacy INS attempted to provide both a service and control function. This dual mandate made it difficult for INS investigators to fulfill their mission of interior enforcement of the immigration laws. Other problems included organizational relations, as well as notions about professionalism, which affected recruitment, retention, training, and worker expectations. On March 1, 2003, the INS separated its dual mandate and moved to the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) with the intent of solving some of these problems. As a result, one might assume that the fundamental contradiction imposed by the dual-mandate structure would be resolved. The updated material in this edition discusses that prospect and includes statistical analyses of a sample of apprehended aliens, as well as the Survey of Inmates from the Bureau of Justice Statistics for information on foreign-born criminals. The data file on apprehended aliens is available for download for purchasers of the book.
Current interior enforcement strategies are discussed in an interview with the Special Agent in Charge of the New York DHS office.
George J. Weissinger is Associate Professor of Criminal Justice at Briarcliffe College, Bethpage, New York. Professor Weissinger earned his doctorate in sociology from New York University and was a former criminal investigator with the INS (1974-1985) and Sr. US Parole Officer supervising organized crime offenders (1985-1998).
Chapter 1 Preface Chapter 2 The Immigration & Naturalization Service: Introduction; The INS as a Control Agency; INS Enforcement: Investigators and Border Patrol Agents; Investigating and Processing Illegal Aliens; Administrative and Criminal Law Violations; The Rights of Alie Chapter 3 Notes Chapter 4 Immigration Laws: The Task of Social Control: A Review of Immigration Legislation and Policies; Recent Legislation and Policy; Enforcement as a Reaction to Crisis; Amnesty & SCIRP; The Immigration Act of 1990; Anti-Terrorism & Effective Death Penalt Chapter 5 Notes Chapter 6 The Illegal Alien Environment: Norms as Rules In Use: Introduction; Dealing with the Dangerous Classes; The Interpretive Framework and the Organizational Content; External Relations: Politics, Interest Groups, and the Media; Investigators' Perceived Chapter 7 Notes Chapter 8 Methodological Overview: Introduction; Selection of Topic for Research; Unit of Study; Sample Size; Specialized Interviewing; Corruption: A Methodological Issue; Focused Interviews; Informants; Interview Guide; Description of Sample Chapter 9 Notes Chapter 10 Investigator Perceptions of Agency Policies: Introduction: Investigator Casework and Tasks; Policies That Cause Problems for Investigators; Assigned Casework; Non-file Casework and Other Tasks; Agency Mission and Investigator Mission; Criminal Prose Chapter 11 Notes Chapter 12 The Investigator at Work: Unit Status; Investigative Work and the Element of Danger; Managers and Supervisors; Paper Work; Factors that Affect Morale; codes on Factors Affecting Morale; Language: Investigative Jargon and Policing Chapter 13 Notes Chapter 14 Internal and External Relations: The Commissioners: Service vs. Enforcement; Illegal Aliens: Drainers or Contributors; The US Attorney: Criminal vs. Administrative Cases; Liaison with Other Agencies; The Media Chapter 15 Notes Chapter 16 Interpretation: Problems of Status and Morale: Problems of Morale in a Dual-Structure Organization; Interorganizational and Intraorganizational Relations; Professionalization Chapter 17 Notes Chapter 18 The Illegal Alien: Characteristics of Interior Enforcement: The Illegal Alien Problem; The Illegal Alien in New York: A Sample; Criminal Aliens in the US; Repeat Offenders; ICE: The New INS & Homeland Security; Interview with SAC Martin Ficke, DHS-I Chapter 19 Notes