This scope of the book extends from process fundamentals to operational practices, and also includes the important aspect of environmental issues. At the operations level, comprehensive reviews of the major applications of both metals are outlined. Emphasis is placed on recent commercial developments with less energy intensive technologies which are in harmony with environmental conservation. At the research level, the emphasis is placed on the better understanding of existing technologies and the development of new processing concepts. Environmental concerns, associated with the processing of both metals, are considered along with acceptable treatment and handling of by-products, wastes and bleed streams by the industry. Fundamental research and basic studies related to new Pb and Zn processes and to the understanding and basic theories of Pb and Zn processing are covered. Global factors affecting the production of zinc and lead including the economic aspects of the industries, product development and marketing endeavors, and environmental and health issues. Surveys of existing smelters and refineries for lead and zinc production are included. Zinc production technology, lead production technology, applications such as the galvanization of steel, chemicals, ZnO and batteries are covered. Environmental issues, recycling technologies, and product life cycle concerns are addressed.