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A primary text for use in high-prevalence courses in special education programs. A critical look at four high-prevalence mild disabilities as seen from several unique perspectives. Learners with Mild Disabilities focuses on four high-prevalence disorders: mild intellectual disabilities, learning disabilities, emotional/behavioral disorders, and ADHD. The text also considers the Autism Spectrum Disorders, such as HFA and Asperger's Syndrome, in addition to other mild conditions such as communication disorders. This text looks first at the concept of disability from conventional categorical perspectives, and then shifts to focusing on learners from the perspective of alternative, non-categorical frameworks. It describes students with disabilities and related conditions with respect to a variety of individual strengths and needs, considering their cognitive, perceptual, language, academic learning, and social/emotional characteristics. The reader is encouraged to apply these conceptual frameworks through the analysis of numerous vignettes and extended case studies that are drawn from the experiences of real children and teachers throughout the text.
Using this non-categorical framework best prepares special educators for the complex job of providing effective services to the full and unique spectrum of students with mild disabilities.
Preface UNIT I SETTING THE STAGE Chapter 1 Perspectives on Disability Meet Clarence Studying High-Prevalence Disabilities Mild Does Not Mean "Not Serious" The Power of Language Labeling, Classifying, and Identifying To Classify or Not to Classify Additional Thoughts on Labeling The Historical Context of Disability Early History of Disability The Middle Ages, Renaissance and the Enlightenment Disability Services in the United States (1800-1950) Eugenics in Europe and the United States The Testing Movement in Europe and the United States Serving Children Identified as Having Disabilities Disabilities in the United States from 1950 to the Present Legislative and Legal Supports Overview of the IDEA Principles History of Rights Won in United States Courts Trends in History Summary Ed Murphy: A Case Study Chapter 2 Issues in Assessment and Identification Meet Jeffrey Assessment and Evaluation Requirements in IDEA Purposes of Assessment of Students with Special Educational Needs Types of Assessment Instruments and Techniques Norm-Referenced Assessment Criterion-Referenced and Curriculum-Based Assessment Performance Assessment Portfolio Assessment Functional Behavioral Assessment Reporting on Student Progress: Grading Best Practices in Assessment of Children and Youth with Disabilities Issues in Identification Categories as Social Constructions Are Non-categorical Models of Service an Alternative? Response to Intervention: A Non-Categorical Strategy for Assessment and Identification A Prevention Framework as Support Summary Sharon: A Case Study Chapter 3 Issues in Instruction and Placement Meet Enrico Curriculum and Learners with Mild Disabilities Alternatives to Instructional Accommodations Instructional Strategies to Enhance Curricular Access Explicit Teaching Peer Tutoring Cooperative Learning Cognitive Strategies Positive Behavioral Supports Instruction and Individualized Education Program Planning Alternative Curricula and Assessments IDEA 2004 and the Location of Services Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) Models of Service Commonly Used for Students with Mild Disabilities Inclusion: A Continuing Issue in Special Education Summary Angie: A Case Study UNIT II WHO ARE THE LEARNERS WITH MILD DISABILITIES? Chapter 4 Learners with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Meet Caroline Naming this Group of Learners Historical Foundations of Intellectual Disabilities Development of the Definition of Intellectual Disabilities in the United States IDEA Definition of Intellectual Disabilities Additional Perspectives on Defining Intellectual Disabilities The New Generation of Other AAIDD/AAMR Definitions Developmental Disabilities and Delay An Alternative Definition with an Instructional Perspective Levels of Severity Educational Terminology Supports and Intensity of Support Needs Prevalence of Intellectual Disabilities Conditions Associated with Risk of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Biomedical Risk Factors Environmental (Social, Behavioral, Educational) Risk Factors Nature or Nurture? Typical Characteristics of Persons with Intellectual Disabilities Summary Jennie: A Case Study Chapter 5 Learners with Learning Disabilities Meet Peter Naming this Group of Learners Historical Development of the Concept of Learning Disabilities IDEA Definition of Specific Learning Disabilities Assessment and Identification Issues Discrepancy Determination Issues IDEA 2004 and Changes in Identification Procedures Response to Intervention as an Identification Process An Alternative Definition of Learning Disabilities Prevalence of Learning Disabilities Conditions Associated with Learning Disabilities Characteristics of Students with Learning Disabilities Summary Bobby: A Case Study Chapter 6 Learners with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders Meet Nicki Terms to Refer to This Group of Learners Historical Foundations of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders IDEA Definition of Emotional Disturbance Social Maladjustment: Definition and Exclusion An Alternative Definition of Emotional or Behavioral Disorders Assessment and Identification Issues Response to Intervention Levels of Severity Prevalence of Emotional or Behavioral Disorders Conditions Associated with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders Biological Factors Family Factors Environmental, Social, and School Factors Types of Emotional or Behavioral Disorders Summary Carter: A Case Study Chapter 7 Learners with ADHD and Other Disorders and Conditions Meet Nancy Learners with Attention Problems Naming this Group of Learners ADHD and the IDEA Current ADHD Definition in the DSM-IV-TR Identification of Learners with ADHD Types of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Levels of Severity Prevalence of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Conditions Associated with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Characteristics of Individuals with ADHD Should ADHD Be a Separate Category in IDEA? Physical and Sensory Disabilities Physical and Health Disabilities Sensory Disabilities Traumatic Brain Injury Communication Disorders Medication: A Persistent Issue Summary Frank: A Case Study Chapter 8 Learners with Autism Spectrum Disorders Meet Jacob Naming this Group of Learners Historical Development of the concept of Autism Spectrum Disorders IDEA Definition of Autism Spectrum Disorders The Psychiatric/Medical Definition of Autism Spectrum Disorders in the DSM Assessment and Identification Issues Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders Levels of Severity Conditions Associated with Autism Spectrum Disorders Characteristics of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders Reciprocal Social Interactions and Relationships Communication Restricted Interests Other Related Characteristics and Behaviors Characteristics Descriptive of Specific Conditions on the Spectrum Summary Sara: A Case Study UNIT III WHAT ARE LEARNERS WITH MILD DISABILITIES LIKE? Chapter 9 Cognitive and Perceptual Characteristics Meet Robert Cognitive Theory and Approaches to Mild Disabilities Constructivist Perspectives Piaget and Biological Constructivism Vygotsky and Social Constructivism Cognitive Styles Research Field Dependence/Field Independence Impulsivity and Reflectivity Information-Processing Approaches Structural Storage Components Strategic Control Components Executive Functions Summary Charlene: A Case Study Chapter 10 Language Characteristics Meet Tom Definition of Language Which Learners Have Language Difficulties/Disorders? Language Components and Skills Phonology Morphology Syntax Semantics Pragmatics Receptive and Expressive Language Language Functions Listening Speaking Reading Writing Common Language Characteristics of Learners with Mild Disabilities Language Difference or Disability? Implications of Language Characteristics for Thinking and Learning Summary Clark: A Case Study Chapter 11 Academic Learning Characteristics Meet Barbara What Is Learning? Stages of Learning Acquisition and Reversion Proficiency and Automaticity Maintenance Generalization Adaptation Critical Learning Needs of Students with Disabilities The Role of Motivation Extrinsic Motivation Intrinsic Motivation Locus of Control and Attribution of Success or Failure External Causal Attributions and Locus of Control Internal Causal Attributions and Locus of Control Spirals of Failure or Success Learned Helplessness Adolescents with Disabilities in Behavior and Learning Self Determination Learning Styles and Multiple Intelligences Learning Styles Multiple Intelligences Universal Design for Learning Instructional Needs of Learners with Disabilities Time Allowed for Instruction Persistence or Motivation Pupils' Aptitude for Instruction Ability to Understand Instruction Quality of Instruction Summary Allison: A Case Study Chapter 12 Social-Emotional Characteristics Meet Eddie Perspectives on Social-Emotional Characteristics Developmental Perspectives Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development Emotional Development Development of Social Perspective Taking Social Competence and Cognitive Development Social Intelligence Emotional Competence Social Cognitive Delay The Relationship Between Problems in Behavior and Problems in Learning Behavior from an Ecological Perspective Risk and Resilience Maladaptive Behavior Patterns of Maladaptive Behavior IDEA 2004 and Serious Discipline Problems Summary Sammy: A Case Study Appendix Council for Exceptional Children Labeling and Categorizing of Children Inclusive Schools and Community Settings National Association of School Psychologists Glossary References Index
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- ID: 9781292041360
Pearson New International Edition
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