For Learning Theory/Cognition and Instruction, Advanced Educational Psychology, and Introductory Educational Psychology courses.
An essential resource for understanding the main principles, concepts, and research findings of key learning theories -especially as they relate to education-this proven text blends theory, research, and applications throughout, providing its readers with a coherent and unified perspective on learning in educational settings.
Table of Contents Chapter 1 - Introduction to the Study of Learning Learning Defined Precursors of Modern Learning Theories Learning theory and philosophy Beginnings of the psychological study of learning Structuralism and functionalism Learning Theory and Research Functions of theory Conducting research Assessment of Learning Direct observations Written responses Oral responses Ratings by others Self-reports Relation of Learning and Instruction Historical perspective Instructional commonalities Integration of theory and practice Critical Issues for Learning Theories How does learning occur? What is the role of memory? What is the role of motivation? How does transfer occur? Which processes are involved in self-regulation? What are the implications for instruction? Three Learning Scenarios Kathy Stone's third-grade class Jim Marshall's U. S. History class Gina Brown's educational psychology class Summary Further Reading Chapter 2 - Behaviorism Connectionism Trial-and-error learning Laws of exercise and effect Other principles Revisions to Thorndike's theory Instructional applications Classical Conditioning Basic processes Informational variables Biological influences Conditioned emotional reactions Contiguous Conditioning Acts and movements Associative strength Rewards and punishments Habit formation and change Operant Conditioning Conceptual framework Basic processes Behavioral change Behavior modification Self-regulation Instructional Applications Behavioral objectives Learning time Mastery learning Programmed instruction Contingency contracts Summary Further Reading Chapter 3 - Neuroscience of Learning Organization and Structures Neural organization Brain structures Localization and interconnections Brain research methods Neurophysiology of Learning Information processing system Memory networks Language learning Brain Development Influential factors Phases of development Critical periods Language development Motivation and Emotions Motivation Emotions Instructional Applications Relevance of brain research Educational issues Brain-based educational practices Summary Further Reading Chapter 4 - Information Processing Theory Information Processing System Assumptions Two-store (dual-memory) model Alternatives to the two-store model Attention Theories of attention Attention and learning Attention and reading Perception Gestalt theory Sensory registers LTM comparisons Two-Store Memory Model Verbal learning Short-term (working) memory Long-term memory Influences on encoding Long-Term Memory: Storage Propositions Storage of knowledge Production systems and connectionist models Long-Term Memory: Retrieval and Forgetting Retrieval Language comprehension Forgetting Mental Imagery Representation of spatial information Imagery in LTM Individual differences Instructional Applications Advance organizers Conditions of learning Cognitive load Summary Further Reading Chapter 5 - Social Cognitive Theory Conceptual Framework for Learning Reciprocal interactions Enactive and vicarious learning Learning and performance Self-regulation Modeling Processes Theories of imitation Functions of modeling Cognitive skill learning Motor skill learning Influences on Learning and Performance Developmental status of learners Model prestige and competence Vicarious consequences to models Motivational Processes Goals Outcome expectations Values Self-Efficacy Conceptual overview Self-efficacy in achievement situations Models and self-efficacy Motor skills Instructional self-efficacy Health and therapeutic activities Instructional Applications Models Self-efficacy Worked examples Tutoring and mentoring Summary Further Reading Chapter 6 - Constructivism Constructivism: Assumptions and Perspectives Overview Perspectives Situated cognition Contributions and applications Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development Developmental processes Implications for instruction Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory Background Basic principles Zone of Proximal Development Applications Critique Private Speech and Socially-Mediated Learning Private speech Verbalization and achievement Socially mediated learning Self-regulation Motivation Contextual factors Implicit theories Teachers' expectations Constructivist Learning Environments Key features APA Learner-Centered Principles Instructional Applications Discovery learning Inquiry teaching Peer-assisted learning Discussions and debates Reflective teaching Summary Further Reading Chapter 7 - Cognitive Learning Processes Skill Acquisition General and specific skills Novice-to-expert research methodology Expert-novice differences in science Conditional Knowledge and Metacognition Conditional knowledge Metacognition and learning Variables influencing metacognition Metacognition and behavior Metacognition and reading Concept Learning The nature of concepts Concept attainment Teaching of concepts Motivational processes Problem Solving Historical influences Heuristics Problem-solving strategies Problem solving and learning Experts and novices Reasoning Implications for instruction Transfer Historical views Activation of knowledge in memory Types of transfer Strategy transfer Teaching for transfer Technology and Instruction Computer-based learning environments Distance learning Future directions Instructional Applications Worked examples Writing Mathematics Summary Further Reading Chapter 8 - Self-Regulation Behavioral Theory Self-monitoring Self-instruction Self-reinforcement Social Cognitive Theory Conceptual framework Social cognitive processes Cyclical nature of self-regulation Social and self influences Information Processing Theory Model of self-regulation Learning strategies Constructivist Theory Socilcultural influences Implicit theories Motivation and Self-Regulation Volition Values Self-schemas Help seeking Instructional Applications Academic studying Writing Mathematics Summary Further Reading Chapter 9 - Motivation Historical Perspectives Drive theory Conditioning theory Cognitive consistency theory Humanistic theory Model of Motivated Learning Pretask During task Posttask Achievement Motivation Expectancy-value theory Familial influences Contemporary model of achievement motivation Self-worth theory Task and ego involvement Attribution Theory Locus of control Naive analysis of action Attribution theory of achievement Social Cognitive Theory Goals and expectations Social comparison Goal Theory Goal orientations Conceptions of ability Perceptions of Control Control beliefs Learned helplessness Students with learning problems Self-Concept Dimensions and development Self-concept and learning Intrinsic motivation Theoretical perspectives Overjustification and reward Instructional Applications Achievement motivation training Attribution change programs Goal orientations Summary Further Reading Chapter 10 - Development Beginnings of the Scientific Study of Development Historical foundations Philosophical foundations The Child Study Movement Perspectives on Human Development Issues relevant to learning Types of developmental theories Structural theories Bruner's Theory of Cognitive Growth Cognitive growth and knowledge representation Spiral curriculum Contemporary Developmental Themes Developmental changes Developmentally appropriate instruction Transitions in schooling Family Influences Socioeconomic status Home environment Parental involvement Electronic media Motivation and Development Developmental changes Implications Instructional Applications Learning styles Case's instructional model Teacher-student interactions Summary Further Reading Glossary References Author Index Subject Index