For Learning Theory/Cognition and Instruction, Advanced Educational Psychology, and Introductory Educational Psychology courses. An essential resource for understanding the main principles, concepts, and research findings of key learning theories -especially as they relate to education-this proven text blends theory, research, and applications throughout, providing its readers with a coherent and unified perspective on learning in educational settings.
Table of ContentsChapter 1 - Introduction to the Study of LearningLearning DefinedPrecursors of Modern Learning Theories Learning theory and philosophy Beginnings of the psychological study of learning Structuralism and functionalismLearning Theory and Research Functions of theory Conducting researchAssessment of Learning Direct observations Written responses Oral responses Ratings by others Self-reportsRelation of Learning and Instruction Historical perspective Instructional commonalities Integration of theory and practiceCritical Issues for Learning Theories How does learning occur? What is the role of memory? What is the role of motivation? How does transfer occur? Which processes are involved in self-regulation? What are the implications for instruction?Three Learning Scenarios Kathy Stone's third-grade class Jim Marshall's U. S. History class Gina Brown's educational psychology classSummaryFurther Reading Chapter 2 - BehaviorismConnectionism Trial-and-error learning Laws of exercise and effect Other principles Revisions to Thorndike's theory Instructional applicationsClassical Conditioning Basic processes Informational variables Biological influences Conditioned emotional reactionsContiguous Conditioning Acts and movements Associative strength Rewards and punishments Habit formation and changeOperant Conditioning Conceptual framework Basic processes Behavioral change Behavior modification Self-regulationInstructional Applications Behavioral objectives Learning time Mastery learning Programmed instruction Contingency contractsSummaryFurther Reading Chapter 3 - Neuroscience of LearningOrganization and Structures Neural organization Brain structures Localization and interconnections Brain research methodsNeurophysiology of Learning Information processing system Memory networks Language learningBrain Development Influential factors Phases of development Critical periods Language developmentMotivation and Emotions Motivation EmotionsInstructional Applications Relevance of brain research Educational issues Brain-based educational practicesSummaryFurther Reading Chapter 4 - Information Processing TheoryInformation Processing SystemAssumptionsTwo-store (dual-memory) modelAlternatives to the two-store modelAttention Theories of attention Attention and learning Attention and readingPerception Gestalt theory Sensory registers LTM comparisonsTwo-Store Memory Model Verbal learning Short-term (working) memory Long-term memory Influences on encodingLong-Term Memory: Storage Propositions Storage of knowledge Production systems and connectionist modelsLong-Term Memory: Retrieval and Forgetting Retrieval Language comprehension ForgettingMental Imagery Representation of spatial information Imagery in LTM Individual differencesInstructional Applications Advance organizers Conditions of learning Cognitive loadSummaryFurther Reading Chapter 5 - Social Cognitive TheoryConceptual Framework for LearningReciprocal interactionsEnactive and vicarious learningLearning and performanceSelf-regulationModeling Processes Theories of imitation Functions of modeling Cognitive skill learning Motor skill learningInfluences on Learning and Performance Developmental status of learners Model prestige and competence Vicarious consequences to modelsMotivational Processes Goals Outcome expectations ValuesSelf-Efficacy Conceptual overview Self-efficacy in achievement situations Models and self-efficacy Motor skills Instructional self-efficacy Health and therapeutic activitiesInstructional Applications Models Self-efficacy Worked examples Tutoring and mentoringSummaryFurther Reading Chapter 6 - ConstructivismConstructivism: Assumptions and Perspectives Overview Perspectives Situated cognition Contributions and applicationsPiaget's Theory of Cognitive Development Developmental processes Implications for instructionVygotsky's Sociocultural Theory Background Basic principles Zone of Proximal Development Applications CritiquePrivate Speech and Socially-Mediated Learning Private speech Verbalization and achievement Socially mediated learning Self-regulationMotivation Contextual factors Implicit theories Teachers' expectationsConstructivist Learning Environments Key features APA Learner-Centered PrinciplesInstructional Applications Discovery learning Inquiry teaching Peer-assisted learning Discussions and debates Reflective teachingSummaryFurther Reading Chapter 7 - Cognitive Learning ProcessesSkill Acquisition General and specific skills Novice-to-expert research methodology Expert-novice differences in scienceConditional Knowledge and Metacognition Conditional knowledge Metacognition and learning Variables influencing metacognition Metacognition and behavior Metacognition and readingConcept Learning The nature of concepts Concept attainment Teaching of concepts Motivational processesProblem Solving Historical influences Heuristics Problem-solving strategies Problem solving and learning Experts and novices Reasoning Implications for instructionTransfer Historical views Activation of knowledge in memory Types of transfer Strategy transfer Teaching for transferTechnology and Instruction Computer-based learning environments Distance learning Future directionsInstructional Applications Worked examples Writing MathematicsSummaryFurther Reading Chapter 8 - Self-RegulationBehavioral Theory Self-monitoring Self-instruction Self-reinforcementSocial Cognitive Theory Conceptual framework Social cognitive processes Cyclical nature of self-regulation Social and self influencesInformation Processing Theory Model of self-regulation Learning strategiesConstructivist Theory Socilcultural influences Implicit theoriesMotivation and Self-Regulation Volition Values Self-schemas Help seekingInstructional Applications Academic studying Writing MathematicsSummaryFurther Reading Chapter 9 - MotivationHistorical Perspectives Drive theory Conditioning theory Cognitive consistency theory Humanistic theoryModel of Motivated Learning Pretask During task PosttaskAchievement Motivation Expectancy-value theory Familial influences Contemporary model of achievement motivation Self-worth theory Task and ego involvementAttribution Theory Locus of control Naive analysis of action Attribution theory of achievementSocial Cognitive Theory Goals and expectations Social comparisonGoal Theory Goal orientations Conceptions of abilityPerceptions of Control Control beliefs Learned helplessness Students with learning problemsSelf-Concept Dimensions and development Self-concept and learningIntrinsic motivation Theoretical perspectives Overjustification and rewardInstructional Applications Achievement motivation training Attribution change programs Goal orientationsSummaryFurther Reading Chapter 10 - DevelopmentBeginnings of the Scientific Study of Development Historical foundations Philosophical foundations The Child Study MovementPerspectives on Human Development Issues relevant to learning Types of developmental theories Structural theoriesBruner's Theory of Cognitive Growth Cognitive growth and knowledge representation Spiral curriculumContemporary Developmental Themes Developmental changes Developmentally appropriate instruction Transitions in schoolingFamily Influences Socioeconomic status Home environment Parental involvement Electronic mediaMotivation and Development Developmental changes ImplicationsInstructional Applications Learning styles Case's instructional model Teacher-student interactionsSummaryFurther ReadingGlossaryReferencesAuthor IndexSubject Index