Lecture Notes on the General Theory of Relativity: From Newton's Attractive Gravity to the Repulsive Gravity of Vacuum Energy (Lecture Notes in Physic

Lecture Notes on the General Theory of Relativity: From Newton's Attractive Gravity to the Repulsive Gravity of Vacuum Energy (Lecture Notes in Physic

By: Oyvind Gron (author)Paperback

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Description

These notes are a transcript of lectures delivered by Oyvind Gron during the spring of 1997 at the University of Oslo. The present version of this document is an extended and corrected version of a set of Lecture Notes which were typesetted by S. Bard, Andreas O. Jaunsen, A Frode Hansen and Ragnvald J. Irgens using LT X2 . Svend E. Hjelmeland has made E many useful suggestions which have improved the text. I would also like to thank Jon Magne Leinaas and Sigbjorn Hervik for contributing with problems, and Gorm Krogh Johnsen for help with nishing the manuscript. I also want to thank prof. Finn Ravndal for inspiring lectures on general relativity. While we hope that these typeset notes are of bene t particularly to students of general relativity and look forward to their comments, we welcome all interested readers and accept all feedback with thanks. All comment may be sent to the author by e-mail.

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Contents

Newton's law of universal gravitation.- The force law of gravitation.- Newton's law of gravitation in local form.- Tidal forces.- The principle of equivalence.- The general principle of relativity.- The covariance principle.- Mach's principle.- The special theory of relativity.- Coordinate systems and Minkowski diagrams.- Synchronization of clocks.- The Doppler effect.- Relativistic time-dilation.- The relativity of simultaneity.- The Lorentz contraction.- The Lorentz transformation.- The Lorentz invariant interval.- The twin paradox.- Hyperbolic motion.- Energy and mass.- Relativistic increase of mass.- Tachyons.- Magnetism as a relativistic second order effect.- Vectors, tensors and forms.- Vectors.- Four-vectors.- Tangent vector fields and coordinate vectors.- Coordinate transformations.- Structure coefficients.- Tensors.- Transformation of tensor components.- Transformation of basis 1-forms.- The metric tensor.- Forms.- Rotating and accelerated reference frames.- Rotating reference frames.- The spatial metric tensor.- Angular acceleration of the rotating frame.- Gravitational time dilation.- Path of photons emitted from the axis in a rotating frame.- The Sagnac effect.- Uniformly accelerated reference frames.- Covariant differentiation.- Differentiation of forms.- Exterior differentiation.- Covariant derivative.- The Christoffel symbols.- Geodetic curves.- The covariant Euler-Lagrange equations.- Application of the Lagrange formalism to free particles.- Equation of motion from Lagrange's equations.- Geodesic worldliness in spacetime.- Gravitational Doppler effect.- The Koszul connection.- Connection coefficients and structure coefficients in a Riemannian (torsion free) space.- Covariant differentiation of vectors, forms and tensors.- Covariant differentiation of a vector field in an arbitrary basis.- Covariant differentiation of forms.- Generalization for tensors of higher rank.- The Cartan connection.- Curvature.- The Riemann curvature tensor.- Differential geometry of surfaces.- Surface curvature using the Cartan formalism.- The Ricci identity.- Bianchi's 1st identity.- Bianchi's 2nd identity.- Einstein's field equations.- Energy-momentum conservation.- Newtonian fluid.- Perfect fluids.- Einstein's curvature tensor.- Einstein's field equations.- The 'geodesic postulate' as a consequence of the field equations.- The Schwarschild spacetime.- Schwarzschild's exterior solution.- Radial free fall in Schwarzschild spacetime.- Light cones in Schwarzschild spacetime.- Analytical extension of the Schwarzschild coordinates.- Embedding of the Schwarzschild metric.- Deceleration of light.- Particle trajectories in Schwarzschild 3-space.- Motion in the equatorial plane.- Classical tests of Einstein's general theory of relativity.- The Hafele-Keating experiment.- Mercury's perihelion precession.- Deflection of light.- Black holes.- 'Surface gravity': gravitational acceleration on the horizon of a black hole.- Hawking radiation: radiation from a black hole.- Rotating black holes: The Kerr metric.- Zero-angular-momentum-observers.- Does the Kerr space have a horizon?.- Schwarzschild's interior solution.- Newtonian incompressible star.- The pressure contribution to the gravitational mass of a static, spherically symmetric system.- The Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov equation.- An exact solution for incompressible stars - Schwarzschild's interior solution.- Cosmology.- Comoving coordinate system.- Curvature isotropy - the Robertson-Walker metric.- Cosmic dynamics.- Hubble's law.- Cosmological redshift of light.- Cosmic fluids.- Isotropic and homogeneous universe models.- Some cosmological models.- Radiation dominated model.- Dust dominated model.- Transition from radiation to matter dominated universe.- Friegmann-Lemaitre model.- Inflationary cosmology.- Problems with the Big Bang models.- Cosmic inflation.

Product Details

  • publication date: 22/10/2010
  • ISBN13: 9781441927750
  • Format: Paperback
  • Number Of Pages: 264
  • ID: 9781441927750
  • weight: 415
  • ISBN10: 1441927751
  • edition: Softcover reprint of hardcover 1st ed. 2009

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