Legitimate Expectations Under Article 1 of Protocol No. 1 to the European Convention on Human Rights
By: Maya Sigron (author)Paperback
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This book provides a thorough evaluation of the complex relationship between legitimate expectations and the protection of property guaranteed by Article 1 of Protocol No. 1 to the European Convention on Human Rights. To set the context, the book first gives a brief but comprehensive analysis of property rights from Ancient Greek times until now. Subsequently, it compares the protection of legitimate expectations with its underlying principles in other legal orders. The book's core addresses three main research questions: What are the conditions for the creation and protection of legitimate expectations in the context of Article 1 of Protocol No. 1? What role do confidence, detriment and fair balance play in that context? What purpose do legitimate expectations fulfil in the context of Article 1 of Protocol No. 1? To answer these questions, the author conducts an extensive analysis of the European Court of Human Rights' case-law related to legitimate expectations under Article 1 of Protocol No. 1.
On the occasion of this analysis, she collects and lists the main misunderstandings with respect to legitimate expectations in cases brought before the European Court of Human Rights under Article 1 of Protocol No. 1. The conclusion assesses the major results and paves the way for future debate about the doctrine of legitimate expectations under Article 1 of Protocol No. 1.
Acknowledgments Abbreviations PART I. INTRODUCTION Chapter 1. Introduction 1. Research Questions 2. Research Method 3. Delimitation of Topic 4. Switzerland 5. Aim and Content PART II. DOCTRINAL ASPECTS Chapter 2. Protection of Property 1. Historical and Philosophical Background 1.1. Ancient Authors 1.1.1. Greek Philosophers 1.1.2. Romans 1.2. Medieval Period 1.3. Modern Era 1.3.1. Natural Law Theory: Grotius, Pufendorf and Locke 1.3.2. Scottish Enlightenment: Hume and Smith 1.3.3. Kant and Hegel 1.3.4. Socialist Theories: Proudhon and Marx 1.3.5. Contemporary Theories: Rawls and Nozick 1.3.6. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights 2. Article 1 of Protocol I to the ECHR 2.1. History of Article 1 of Protocol I to the ECHR 2.1.1. Preparatory Work by the European Movement 2.1.2. Drafting Process 2.1.3. Adoption of the ECHR 2.1.4. Drafting Process in View of Protocol I to the ECHR Intersentia Contents 2.2. Content of Article 1 of Protocol I to the ECHR 3. Appraisal Chapter 3. Protection of Legitimate Expectations 1. Content of the Concept 2. Underlying Principles 2.1. Rule of Law, Legal Certainty, Good Faith and Basic Rights: Germany 2.2. Fairness, Reliance and Estoppel: United Kingdom 2.3. Legal Certainty and Vested Rights: European Union 2.4. Additional Arguments 2.4.1. Venire Contra Factum Proprium and Culpa in Contrahendo 2.4.2. Basic Rights 2.4.3. Structural Principles 2.4.4. Reliance Theory and Autonomy 2.4.5. Utilitarian Arguments 2.4.6. Good Administration and Trust in Government 3. Opposing Principles 3.1. Non-Fettering Doctrine and Flexibility 3.2. Legality 3.3. Others 4. Conditions for the Protection of Legitimate Expectations 4.1. Basis 4.1.1. Public Authority Involved 4.1.2. Form 4.1.3. Addressees 4.1.4. Nature 4.2. Confidence 4.3. External Manifestation 4.4. Balancing of Interests 5. Nature of Protection 6. Appraisal Chapter 4. The ECtHR's Doctrine of Legitimate Expectations: Status Quo 1. Property as Reference Point 1.1. The ECtHR's Definition of 'Possession' 1.1.1. Rights in Rem 1.1.2. Rights in Personam 1.2.3. Intellectual Property 1.2. Evaluation 2. Legitimate Expectations: Status Quo 2.1. The ECtHR's Definition of 'Legitimate Expectation' 2.2. Evaluation of the Doctrine in Literature 2.2.1. Claims, Assets and Legitimate Expectations 2.2.2. Foreseeability of Change 2.2.3. Legitimacy and Fair Balance 2.2.4. Reasonably Justified Reliance 3. Appraisal PART III. ANALYSIS Chapter 5. Basis for Legitimate Expectations 1. Judicial Decisions 1.1. Author of Decision. 1.2. Content of Decision 1.3. Final and Enforceable Judicial Decisions 1.3.1. Final Decisions Not Deciding the Claim 1.3.2. Sufficiently Established Claims 1.3.3. Example: Judgment Debts 1.3.4. Non-Enforcement or Quashing. 1.4. Non-Final Judicial Decisions and Pending Claims 1.4.1. Non-Final Decisions 1.4.2. Pending Claims 1.5. Combination with Other Bases 1.6. Summary 2. Administrative and Parliamentary Decisions 3. Case-Law 3.1. Source 3.2. Content 3.3. Combination with Other Bases 3.4. Summary 4. Legal Provisions 4.1. Applicability Ratione Temporis 4.2. Applicability Ratione Personae et Materiae 4.3. Statutory Conditions 4.4. Author 4.5. Content 4.6. Unclear Legal Provisions 4.7. Legal Principles 4.8. Combination with Other Bases 4.9. Summary 5. Registers and Zoning Plans Intersentia Contents 6. Actions and Actual Conduct of the Authorities 6.1. Type of Authority 6.2. Content 6.2.1. Recognition 6.2.2. Treatment 6.2.3. Payment of Taxes and Other Contributions 6.2.4. Agreements and Contracts 6.2.5. Positive Measures6.2.6. Future Conduct 6.3. Tolerance 6.3.1. Illegal Situations and Adverse Possession 6.3.2. Knowledge, Passivity and Duration 6.3.3. Uncertainty 6.4. Ultra Vires and Deficient Acts 6.5. Combination with Other Bases 6.6. Summary 7. Agreements and Contracts Between Private Parties 8. Appraisal Chapter 6. Confidence, Detriment and Fair Balance. 1. Confidence 1.1. Knowledge 1.1.1. Foreseeability of Change 1.1.2. Good Faith 1.2. Conduct of Parties 1.3. Uncertainty 2. External Manifestation 2.1. Material Detriment 2.2. Moral Detriment 3. Balancing of Interests 4. Nature of Protection 5. Appraisal Chapter 7. Functions and Differentiations. 1. Implications for Claims and 'Assets' 1.1. Two-Stage Approach 1.2. Nature of the Claim 1.3. Connection Between 'Assets' and Legitimate Expectations 1.4. Omission of Reference to the Doctrine of Legitimate Expectations Contents 2. Implications for the Definition of 'Possession' 3. Implications for the Fair Balance Test 4. Implications in Other Contexts Under P1 - 1 5. Legitimate Expectations and Other Concepts 5.1. Use of Legitimate Expectations with Other ECHR Articles 5.2. Legitimate Expectations Under P1 - 1 and Article 6 x1 ECHR 5.2.1. Scope of Application of P1 - 1 and Article 6 x1 ECHR 5.2.2. Connection of Complaints Under P1 - 1 and Article 6 x1 ECHR. 5.2.3. Article 6 x1 ECHR as a Basis 5.2.4. Legitimate Expectations Under Article 6 x1 ECHR. 5.2.5. Summary 5.3. Relationship Between Legitimate Expectations and Vested Rights 5.4. Relationship Between Legitimate Expectations and Judgment Debts 6. Appraisal Chapter 8. Insufficient Basis and Other Shortcomings 1. Rights not Provided by P1 - 1 2. Hope 2.1. Difference Between a Hope and a Legitimate Expectation 2.2. Examples 2.3. Keeping a Hope Alive by the Authorities 2.4. Summary 3. Insufficient Basis for a Legitimate Expectation 3.1. Non-Fulfilment of Necessary Conditions 3.1.1. Competence to Decide 3.1.2. Conditional Claim 3.1.3. Disputable Conditions 3.1.4. Interference Pendente Conditione 3.1.5. Summary 3.2. No Final and Enforceable Decisions 3.3. No Legal Provision or Case-Law 3.4. Interpretation and Application of Domestic Law 3.5. Non-Official Acts and Political Statements 3.6. Genuine Dispute or Arguable Claim 4. Lack of Sufficient Evidence 5. Determination of Sufficiently Established Claim Not Necessary 6. Appraisal PART IV. SWITZERLAND AND P1 - Chapter 9. Switzerland, P1 - 1 and the Protection of Legitimate Expectations 1. Non-Ratification of Protocol I by Switzerland 2. Protection of Property under the ECHR 3. Protection of Legitimate Expectations under the ECHR 4. Protection of Property in Switzerland 4.1. Property as a Basic Right 4.2. Notion of Property. 5. Protection of Legitimate Expectations in Switzerland 6. Changes to be Expected After the Ratification of Protocol I PART V. CONCLUSION Chapter 10. Conclusion 1. Definition 1.1. Hy pothesis in Kopecky v. Slovakia 1.1.1. Basis 1.1.2. Confidence 1.1.3. Detriment 1.2. Functions 1.3. Underlying Principles 1.4. Impact on the Definition of 'Possession' 2. Inconsistencies 2.1. Formal Inconsistencies 2.2. Content-Related Inconsistencies 3. Future Improvements 3.1. Necessity of Differentiations and Precise Formulations 3.2. Necessity of Clear Content Annex I. Annex II Bibliography List of Materials Table of Cases
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