In the 19th century, German liberalism grew into a powerful political movement vociferous in its demands for the freedom of the individual, for changes to allow the participation of all men in the political system and for a fundamental reform of the German states. As elsewhere in Europe, liberalism was linked not only with a strong social commitment, but also with the formation of a national state. In this study of liberalism in German, the author analyzes the foundations and developments of liberalism from the 19th to the 20th century. He examines the role of individual German states, the local roots of liberalism, the links between liberalism and its social bases of support, especially from bourgeois groups, and the forms of political organization adopted by the liberals.
DIETER LANGEWIESCHE is Professor of Modern History at the Universitat of Tubingen, and Dean of the Faculty of Philosophy and Vice-Rector of the University of Erfurt. Text edited and translated by CHRISTIANE BANERJII.
List of Tables and Diagrams Abbreviations Introduction PART ONE: EARLY LIBERALISM AND 'MIDDLE-CLASS SOCIETY' Early Liberalism as a Political Constitutional Movement Bureaucratic Liberalism Political and Social Models of the Liberal Movement The Organization and Social Profile of Early Liberalism PART TWO: LIBERAL POLITICS IN THE REVOLUTION OF 1848-9 Images of the Revolution: Limiting the Revolution Liberal Parliamentary Politics Liberals in the Extra-Parliamentary Revolutionary Movement Fundamental Liberal Positions on the Imperial Constitution PART THREE: LIBERALISM BETWEEN THE REVOLUTION AND THE REICHSGRUNDUNG 1849-1858, The Decade of Reaction 'Unity' and 'Freedom'? Liberalism and the Reichsgrundung PART FOUR: THE NATION STATE, INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY AND WELTPOLITIK: LIBERALS IN THE GERMAN KAISERREICH Social and Political Changes Parties, Voters, Members, Pressure Groups: the 'Liberal Milieu', 1871-1918 The 'Liberal Era' and the Shock of the 'Second Reichsgrundung' The State, the Church and the Kulturkampf Anti-Socialism, Social Policies, Liberal Social Models Liberalism and Municipal Politics Weltpolitik and Internal Reform: The Wilhelmine Era War Aims and Aims for Reform: Liberals during the First World War PART FIVE: THE DELIBERALIZATION OF THE 'MIDDLE-CLASS CENTRE': THE DECLINE OF POLITICAL LIBERALISM IN THE WEIMAR REPUBLIC The Overburdened Republic Party Organization, Voters and Pressure Groups: the Dissolution of the 'Liberal Milieu' Liberal Programmes and Political Practice Liberals Before and After 1933: Taking Stock and the Outlook for the Future PART SIX: THE REBIRTH OF LIBERALISM? A BRIEF SUMMARY OF LIBERALISM AND POLITICS IN WEST GERMANY AFTER 1945 Tables and Diagrams Notes Select Bibliography
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