This first hands-on guide to ISO-compliant Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) makes this powerful tool immediately accessible to both professionals and students. Following a general introduction on the philosophy and purpose of LCA, the reader is taken through all the stages of a complete LCA analysis, with each step exemplified by real-life data from a major LCA project on beverage packaging. Measures as carbon and water footprint, based on the most recent international standards and definitions, are addressed. Written by two pioneers of LCA, this practical volume is targeted at first-time LCA users but equally makes a much-valued reference for more experienced practitioners. From the content: * Goal and Scope Definition * Life Cycle Inventory Analysis * Life Cycle Impact Assessment * Interpretation, Reporting and Critical Review * From LCA to Sustainability Assessment and more.
Walter Klopffer is consultant for life cycle and chemicals assessment in Frankfurt (Germany). After his studies of chemistry at the University of Graz (Austria) he was working for nearly thirty years at the Battelle Institute e.V. in Frankfurt, followed by a position at C.A.U. Ltd. in Dreieich (Germany). Since 1975 he has also been Professor of Physical Chemistry at the University of Mainz. Professor Klopffer is the founding editor and current editor-in-chief of 'The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment'. Birgit Grahl studied chemistry at the University of Hamburg (Germany). She then headed the chemistry department of the Oko-Institut e.V. Freiburg (Germany), followed by several years as co-owner and director of a commercial laboratory (Germany) and afterwards working as a freelance consultant in the field of industrial ecology. Dr. Grahl was involved in the development of the ISO 14040 series, is a member of the editorial board of 'The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment' and professor at the University of Applied Sciences in Lubeck (Germany).
INTRODUCTION What is Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)? History The Structure of LCA Standardization of LCA Literature and Information on LCA GOAL AND SCOPE DEFINITION Goal Definition Scope Illustration of the Component "Definition of Goal and Scope" unsing an Example of Practice LIFE CYCLE INVENTORY ANALYSIS Basics Energy Analysis Allocation Procurement, Origin and Quality of Data Data Aggregation and Units Presentation of Inventory Results Illustration of the Inventory Phase by an Example LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT Basic Principle of Life Cycle Impact Assessment Method of Critical Volumes Structure of Impact Assessment according to ISO 14040 and 14044 Method of Impact Categories (Environmental Problem Fields) Impact Categories, Impact Indicators and Characterization Factors Illustration of the Impact Assessment Phase by Practical Example LIFE CYCLE INTERPRETATION, REPORTING AND CRITICAL REVIEW Development and Rank of the Phase Interpretation The Phase Interpretation According to ISO Techniques for Result Analysis Reporting Critical Review Illustration of the Component Interpretation Using an Example of Practice FROM LCA TO SUSTAINABILITY ASSESSMENT Sustainability The Three Dimensions of Sustainability State of the Art of Methods One Life Cycle Assessment or Three? Conclusions APPENDIX Solutions of Exercises Standard Report Sheet of Electricity Mix (Germany) Subject Index
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