Written with a diverse audience in mind, this book describes the current status, development, and future prospects for the critical technology of second-generation biorefineries, specifically with a focus on lignocellulosic materials as feedstock. It provides an overview of the issues behind this technological transition, and it provides, in depth, the science and technology related to cellulose for production of bioethanol and other biofuels. The book also highlights the main emerging routes that will serve as the source of important bio-generated products in the future.
Foreword Preface Introduction Climate change Biomass and its conversion to products Biorefineries Life cycle assessment (LCA Structure of the book References Photosynthesis, the Ultimate Beginning for Biorefineries Introduction Chloroplasts Photosynthetic pigments and antenna complexes Stages of photosynthesis Light reactions Dark reactions C3, C4 and CAM plants Photosynthetic efficiency References Features of First Generation Biorefineries Introduction First-generation biofeedstocks First-generation biofuels Biobased chemicals and materials derived from food plants Environmental performance References Cellulose, the Predominant Constituent of Biomass Introduction Structure Biosynthesis Properties and applications References Enzymatic and non-Biological Degradation of Cellulose Introduction Enzymatic hydrolysis Non-biological degradation References Hemicelluloses and Lignin, Other Key Constituents of Biomass Introduction Hemicelluloses Lignin References Pretreatments of Lignocellulosic Biomass Introduction Physical pretreatments Chemical pretreatments Physicochemical treatments Biological pretreatment Summary References Biochemical Conversion of Biomass Introduction Processes: pretreatment, hydrolysis and fermentation Life cycle assessments Production of cellulosic ethanol: case studies Production of lignocellulose-derived chemicals: case studies Overview of selected companies References Thermochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass Introduction Processes Life cycle assessments Production of fuels and/or chemicals: case studies Overview of selected companies References Perspectives Introduction Representative programs in the U.S. and EU Cellulosic and lignocellulosic feedstocks Lignocellulosic processes Fuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass The sustainability challenge References
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