The study of variation and change is at the heart of the sociolinguistics. Providing a wide survey of the field, this textbook is organised around three constraints on variation: linguistic structure, social structure and identity, and social and linguistic perception. By considering both structure and meaning, Scott F. Kiesling examines the most important issues surrounding variation theory, including canonical studies and terms, as well as challenges to them. Research in non-English and non-European contexts is also addressed. A range of different topics within sociolinguistics is covered including: * The linguistic variable and its status * Sociolinguistic methods * The description of variable patterns * Linguistic and social structure * Social meaning and perception. With over 50 figures and a practical section on methodology, this textbook is an ideal solution for undergraduate and postgraduate students of sociolinguistics seeking a comprehensive study of variation and change.
Scott F. Kiesling is Associate Professor of Linguistics at the University of Pittsburgh. He has published on a wide variety of sociolinguistic projects. Through analyses of language in use in a number of different populations and places, he has focused on understanding how speakers create social meaning with language.
Contents List of figures List of tables Preliminaries and acknowledgements Terminology and Notation conventions Phonetic notation Part I: Questions and method 1 Questions about language and variation, and where we got them Questions about language Where we got the questions: From comparative philology to variationist theories Orderly heterogeneity and constraints on its form 2 The Linguistic Variable Definitions and types Linguistic variables at different linguistic levels Variable rules and their 'quiet demise' Criticisms of the notion of linguistic variable The tyranny of correlation and the problem of atomization 3 Discovering and Describing patterns of variation and change Ethical linguistics Finding language to measure Speech communities and sampling Getting speech: interviews and other talk Recording and managing recordings Coding variables Describing patterns Finding structure in variability Testing statistical significance and modelling variation Part II: Variation and social relationships 4 Social patterns I: Interspeaker variation Stratification Canonical patterns: Accommodation Canonical patterns: Differentiation Challenges to canonical patterns 5 Social patterns II: Intraspeaker variation Intraspeaker patterns, community patterns, and style Speech event, register, genre, frame Stance and identity 6 Meaning and social patterns Indexicality: Meaning in the sociolinguistic variable Experimental evidence for meaning Indexical webs, cycles, and fields Dimensions of social meaning in language 7 Acquisition of variation How is variation learned? Early childhood Older children and adolescents Adulthood Transmission and incrementation of changes Part III: Variation, change and linguistic structure Introduction to Part III 8 Structural patterns I: Phonology and Morphology Phonological variation: Patterns of change, structural effects, and explanation Change in progress Shifts and chain shifts Mergers Regularity vs. lexical diffusion Phonological patterns of variety contact Morphological variation 9 Structural patterns II: Syntax, lexical variables, and suprasegmentals Description: the problem of 'saying the same thing' Syntactic variables Pragmatic and discourse variables Lexicon Suprasegmentals: intonation and rhythm Part V: Conclusions 10 The life and times of linguistic changes Sources and actuation of change Early development and spread of change Propagation, diffusion, transmission, and completion References Index