Liquid Phase Oxidation Via Heterogeneous Catalysis: Organic Synthesis and Industrial Applications

Liquid Phase Oxidation Via Heterogeneous Catalysis: Organic Synthesis and Industrial Applications

By: Mario G. Clerici (author), Oxana A. Kholdeeva (author)Hardback

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Description

With the recent emphasis on green chemistry in the chemical industries, there is the need for environmentally friendly large-scale syntheses. This book lays out an important catalytic reaction class for these green/sustainable reactions, covering catalyst characterization and performance as well as paying special attention to catalyst stability and recyclability. An international team of authors guides readers in the selection, preparation, and use of catalysts for industrial organic synthesis in the pharmaceutical, fragrance, fine chemical, and petrochemical industries.

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About Author

MARIO G. CLERICI, Laurea in Chemistry, has over thirty-five years of industry experience working with organic synthesis and homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis in the ENI group. He also taught courses in the Department of Industrial Chemistry at the University of Turin, Italy, for eight years and served as a scientific expert on clean catalytic technologies at the International Centre for Science and High Technology, Trieste. A recipient of the Donald W. Breck Award, Dr. Clerici holds more than forty patents. OXANA A. KHOLDEEVA, PhD, is Head of the Research Group for Heterogeneous Catalysis for Liquid-Phase Selective Oxidations at the Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Russia, and a visiting professor at several universities in Europe and the United States. As the author of over 100 articles and nine patents, she participated in the expert panel of the sixth World Congress on Oxidation Catalysis and is a member of the International Advisory Board for the International Symposium on Activation of Dioxygen and Homogeneous Catalytic Oxidation (ADHOC).

Contents

Preface xi Contributors xiii Abbreviations xv 1 Environmentally Benign Oxidants 1 Giorgio Strukul and Alessandro Scarso 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Oxygen (Air) 3 1.3 Alkylhydroperoxides 5 1.4 Hydrogen Peroxide 9 1.5 Conclusions 16 References 17 2 Oxidation Reactions Catalyzed by Transition-Metal-Substituted Zeolites 21 Mario G. Clerici and Marcelo E. Domine 2.1 Introduction 21 2.2 Synthesis and Characterization of Zeolites 22 2.2.1 Isomorphous Metal Substitution 23 2.2.2 Synthesis of Titanium Silicalite-1 (TS-1) 24 2.2.3 Characterization of Titanium Silicalite-1 (TS-1) 26 2.2.4 Ti-Beta, Synthesis and Characterization 30 2.2.5 Other Ti Zeolites 32 2.2.6 Other Metal Zeolites 33 2.3 Catalytic Properties 34 2.3.1 Hydroxylation of Alkanes 34 2.3.2 Hydroxylation of Aromatic Compounds 40 2.3.3 Oxidation of Olefinic Compounds 47 2.3.4 Oxidation of Alcohol and Ether Compounds 59 2.3.5 Reactions of Carbonyl Compounds 60 2.3.6 Oxidation of N-Compounds 63 2.3.7 Oxidation of S-Compounds 65 2.4 Mechanistic Aspects 66 2.4.1 The Nature of Active Species 66 2.4.2 Hydroxylation 69 2.4.3 Epoxidation 71 2.4.4 Oxidation of Alcohols 72 2.4.5 Ammoximation 73 2.4.6 Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide 74 2.4.7 Active Species, Adsorption and Catalytic Activity 74 2.5 Stability of Metal-Substituted Zeolites to Reaction Conditions 77 2.6 Conclusions 78 References 80 3 Selective Catalytic Oxidation over Ordered Nanoporous Metallo-Aluminophosphates 95 Parasuraman Selvam and Ayyamperumal Sakthivel 3.1 Introduction 95 3.2 Synthesis 100 3.2.1 Microporous Aluminophosphates 100 3.2.2 Mesoporous Aluminophosphates 102 3.3 Characterization 103 3.4 Catalytic Properties 106 3.4.1 Oxidation of Hydrocarbons 106 3.4.2 Oxidation of Olefins 110 3.4.3 Oxidation of Alcohols 111 3.4.4 Oxidation of Phenols 113 3.4.5 Ammoximation and Ammoxidation 114 3.4.6 Baeyer Villiger Oxidation 116 3.4.7 Oxidation of Heterocycles 116 3.5 Mechanistic Aspects 116 3.6 Catalysts Stability 118 3.7 Conclusion 119 References 120 4 Selective Oxidations Catalyzed by Mesoporous Metal Silicates 127 Oxana A. Kholdeeva 4.1 Introduction 127 4.2 Synthesis and Characterization 128 4.2.1 General Synthetic Approaches 128 4.2.2 Characterization Techniques 129 4.2.3 Sol-Gel Synthesis of Amorphous Mixed Oxides 132 4.2.4 Thermolytic Molecular Precursor Method 136 4.2.5 Templated Synthesis of Ordered Metal Silicates 136 4.2.6 Postsynthesis Modifications 156 4.2.7 Organic Inorganic Hybrid Materials 162 4.3 Catalytic Properties 163 4.3.1 Oxidation of Alkanes 163 4.3.2 Oxidation of Aromatic Compounds 167 4.3.3 Oxidation of Olefins 172 4.3.4 Oxidation of Alcohols 182 4.3.5 Oxidation of Ketones and Aldehydes 183 4.3.6 Oxidation of S-compounds 185 4.3.7 Oxidation of Amines 188 4.4 Mechanistic Aspects 189 4.5 Stability 194 4.5.1 Mechanisms of Deactivation 194 4.5.2 Solving Problem of Hydrothermal Stability 197 4.5.3 Hydrothermally Stable Catalysts: Scope and Limitations 199 4.6 Conclusions and Outlook 200 References 201 5 Liquid Phase Oxidation of Organic Compounds by Supported Metal-Based Catalysts with a Focus on Gold 221 Cristina Della Pina, Ermelinda Falletta, and Michele Rossi 5.1 Introduction 221 5.2 Catalyst Preparation and Characterization 222 5.3 Catalytic Properties 224 5.3.1 Oxidation of Hydrocarbons 224 5.3.2 Oxidation of Alcohols and Phenols 228 5.3.3 Oxidation of Carbohydrates: The Case of Glucose 241 5.3.4 Oxidation of Amines and Aminoalcohols 244 5.3.5 Oxidative Polymerization of Aniline and Pyrrole 245 5.4 Reaction Mechanisms 250 5.5 Catalyst Stability 254 5.6 Conclusions 256 References 256 6 Selective Liquid Phase Oxidations in the Presence of Supported Polyoxometalates 263 Craig L. Hill and Oxana A. Kholdeeva 6.1 Introduction 263 6.2 Synthesis and Characterization 266 6.2.1 Choice of POM 266 6.2.2 Embedding POM into Silica and Other Matrixes 267 6.2.3 Adsorption on Active Carbon 271 6.2.4 Electrostatic Attachment 273 6.2.5 Dative and Covalent Binding 283 6.3 Catalytic Properties 287 6.3.1 Oxidation of Alkanes 287 6.3.2 Oxidation of Aromatic Compounds 288 6.3.3 Oxidation of Olefins 288 6.3.4 Oxidation of Alcohols 297 6.3.5 Oxidation of Aldehydes 298 6.3.6 Co-Oxidation of Alkenes and Aldehydes 299 6.3.7 Oxidation of S-containing Compounds 301 6.4 Mechanistic Aspects 304 6.5 Stability 307 6.6 Conclusions 309 References 311 7 Selective Oxidations Catalyzed by Supported Metal Complexes 321 Alexander B. Sorokin 7.1 Introduction 321 7.2 Synthesis and Characterization 323 7.2.1 General Synthetic Strategies 324 7.2.2 Metal Porphyrins 329 7.2.3 Metal Phthalocyanines 331 7.2.4 Complexes with Other Macrocyclic Ligands 336 7.2.5 Chiral Complexes 337 7.3 Catalytic Properties and Stability 338 7.3.1 Oxidation of Alkanes 339 7.3.2 Oxidation of Olefins 344 7.3.3 Oxidation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons 352 7.3.4 Oxidation of Substituted Phenols 353 7.3.5 Oxidation of Alcohols 356 7.3.6 Miscellaneous Oxidations 359 7.4 General Remarks on Stability 362 7.5 Conclusion and Perspectives 364 References 365 8 Liquid Phase Oxidation of Organic Compounds by Metal-Organic Frameworks 371 Young Kyu Hwang, Gerard Ferey, U-Hwang Lee, and Jong-San Chang 8.1 Introduction 371 8.2 Characteristics and Structures 372 8.2.1 Characteristics 372 8.2.2 Structures 374 8.2.3 Syntheses 378 8.2.4 Active Sites 380 8.3 Catalytic Properties 388 8.3.1 Oxidation of Cycloalkanes 388 8.3.2 Oxidation of Aromatic Compounds 389 8.3.3 Oxidation of Olefins 393 8.3.4 Oxidation of Alcohols and Phenols 398 8.3.5 Oxidation of Sulfides 399 8.4 Mechanistic Aspects 400 8.5 Stability 402 8.5.1 Thermal and Chemical Stability 402 8.5.2 Leaching of Active Metal Components 404 8.6 Conclusion 405 References 405 9 Heterogeneous Photocatalysis for Selective Oxidations with Molecular Oxygen 411 Andrea Maldotti, Rossano Amadelli, and Alessandra Molinari 9.1 Introduction 411 9.2 Catalysts Preparation and Mechanistic Aspects 413 9.2.1 Titanium Dioxide 413 9.2.2 Highly Dispersed Oxides 416 9.2.3 Polyoxotungstates 418 9.3 Catalytic Properties 422 9.3.1 Oxidation of Alkanes 422 9.3.2 Oxidation of Aromatic Compounds 427 9.3.3 Oxidation of Alcohols 430 9.3.4 Oxidation of Olefins 436 9.4 Stability 438 9.5 Conclusions 443 References 444 10 Industrial Applications 451 10.1 The Hydroxylation of Phenol to Hydroquinone and Catechol 451 Ugo Romano and Marco Ricci 10.1.1 The Discovery of TS-1 451 10.1.2 The Hydroxylation of Phenol 452 10.1.3 The Industrial Process 456 10.1.4 Other Processes Exploiting TS-1 460 References 461 10.2 The Greening of Nylon: The Ammoximation Process 462 Franco Rivetti and Roberto Buzzoni 10.2.1 Nylon-6 and e-Caprolactam, Outlook and Industrial Production 462 10.2.2 TS-1 Catalyzed Ammoximation 466 10.2.3 Eni Cyclohexanone Ammoximation Process 467 10.2.4 Salt-Free Caprolactam Production 470 10.2.5 Other TS-1-Catalyzed Ammoximation Reactions and Related Processes of Industrial Relevance 470 10.2.6 Conclusion 471 References 472 10.3 Production of Propylene Oxide 474 Anna Forlin, Massimo Bergamo, and Joerg Lindner 10.3.1 Propylene Oxide Production via Ethylbenzene Hydroperoxide Route 476 10.3.2 Propylene Oxide Production via Cumene Hydroperoxide Route 480 10.3.3 Propylene Oxide Production via Hydrogen Peroxide Route 483 10.3.4 Conclusions 487 References 494 10.4 Engineering Aspects of Liquid Phase Oxidations 496 Bruce D. Hook 10.4.1 Heterogeneous Liquid Phase Systems 496 10.4.2 Temperature-Control Requirements 499 10.4.3 Packed-Bed Reactors 500 10.4.4 Three-Phase Systems Gas, Liquid, Solid 501 10.4.5 Oxidant Selection 503 10.4.6 Summary 505 References 506 Index 507

Product Details

  • publication date: 12/07/2013
  • ISBN13: 9780470915523
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 546
  • ID: 9780470915523
  • weight: 908
  • ISBN10: 0470915528

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