Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, Drama, and Writing, Portable Edition (13th Revised edition)

Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, Drama, and Writing, Portable Edition (13th Revised edition)

By: X. J. Kennedy (author), Dana Gioia (author)Hardback

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Note: You are purchasing a standalone product; MyLiteratureLab(R) does not come packaged with this content. If you would like to purchase both the physical text and MyLiteratureLab, search for: 0134047664 / 9780134047669 Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, Drama, and Writing, Portable Edition Plus MyLiteratureLab - Access Card Package Package consists of: *0133931269 / 9780133931266 - MyLiteratureLab - Access Card*0133931277 / 9780133931273 - MyLiteratureLab - Inside Star Sticker*0321998529 / 9780321998521 - Kennedy/Gioia, Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, Drama, and Writing, Portable Edition, 13/e MyLiteratureLab is not a self-paced technology and should only be purchased when required by an instructor. For introductory courses in Literature. Cultivate a Love of Literature...This Portable Edition of Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, Drama, and Writing, 13/e features four lightweight, paperback volumes-Fiction, Poetry, Drama, and Writing-packed in a slipcase for a more manageable, easier-to-study format. X.J. Kennedy & Dana Gioia developed Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, Drama, and Writing, 13/e with two major goals in mind: to introduce college students to the appreciation and experience of literature in its major forms and to develop the students' abilties to think critically and communicate effectively through writing. The book is built on the assumption that great literature can enrich and enlarge the lives it touches. Both editors, literary writers themselves, believe that textbooks should be not only informative and accurate but also lively, accessible, and engaging. Also Available with MyLiteratureLab(R) This title is also available with MyLiteratureLab - an online resource that works with our literature anthologies to provide engaging experiences to instructors and students. Students can access new content that fosters an understanding of literary elements, which provides a foundation for stimulating class discussions. This simple and powerful tool offers state-of-the-art audio and video resources along with practical tools and flexible assessment. The Literature Collection eText within MyLiteratureLab includes more than 700 selections and valuable multimedia resources-including professional performances, biographies of key authors, contextual videos, interactive student papers-that bring literature to life.

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Contents

NOTE: Both Brief and Comprehensive Tables of Contents are listed below. BRIEF CONTENTS VOLUME 1: FICTION Talking with Amy Tan 1. Reading a Story 2. Point of View 3. Character 4. Setting 5. Tone and Style 6. Theme 7. Symbol 8. Reading Long Stories 9. Genre Fiction 10. Latin American Fiction 11. Critical Casebook: Flannery O'Connor 12. Critical Casebook: Three Stories in Depth (Nathaniel Hawthorne, Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Alice Walker) 13. Stories for Further Reading VOLUME 2: POETRY Talking With Kay Ryan 14. Reading a Poem 15. Listening To a Voice 16. Words 17. Saying and Suggesting 18. Imagery 19. Figures of Speech 20. Song 21. Sound 22. Rhythm 23. Closed Form 24. Open Form 25. Symbol 26. Myth and Narrative 27. Poetry and Personal Identity 28. Translation 29. Poetry in Spanish: Literature of Latin America 30. Recognizing Excellence 31. What Is Poetry? 32. Three Critical Casebooks: Emily Dickinson, Langston Hughes, and Robert Frost 33. Critical Casebook: T.S. Eliot's "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock" 34. Poems for Further Reading VOLUME 3: DRAMA Talking with David Ives 35. Reading a Play 36. Modes of Drama: Tragedy and Comedy 37. Critical Casebook: Sophocles 38. Critical Casebook: Shakespeare 39. The Modern Theater 40. Evaluating a Play 41. Plays for Further Reading VOLUME 4: WRITING 42. Writing About LIterature 43. Writing About a Story 44. Writing About a Poem 45. Writing About a Play 46. Writing a Research Paper 47. Writing As Discovery: Keeping a Journal 48. Writing an Essay Exam 29. Critical Approaches to Literature Glossary of Literary Terms Literary Credits Photo Credits Index of Major Themes Index of First Lines of Poetry Index of Authors and Titles Index of Literary Terms COMPREHENSIVE CONTENTS VOLUME 1 Fiction Talking with Amy Tan 1. Reading a Story THE ART OF FICTION TYPES OF SHORT FICTION Sufi Legend, Death Has an Appointment in Samarra A student tries to flee from Death in this brief, sardonic fable. Aesop, The North Wind and the Sun The North Wind and the Sun argue who is stronger and decide to try their powers on an unsuspecting traveler. Bidpai, The Tortoise and the Geese A fable that gives another dimension to Andrew Lang's quip, "He missed an invaluable opportunity to hold his tongue." Chuang Tzu, Independence The Prince of Ch'u asks the philosopher Chuang Tzu to become his advisor and gets a surprising reply in this classic Chinese fable. Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm, Godfather Death Neither God nor the Devil came to the christening. In this stark folktale, a young man receives magical powers with a string attached. PLOT THE SHORT STORY John Updike, A & P In walk three girls in nothing but bathing suits, and Sammy finds himself no longer an aproned checkout clerk but an armored knight. WRITING EFFECTIVELY Wilhelm Grimm on Writing, On the Nature of Fairy Tales THINKING ABOUT PLOT CHECKLIST: Writing About Plot TOPICS FOR WRITING on plot TERMS FOR REVIEW 2. Point of View IDENTIFYING POINT OF VIEW TYPES OF NARRATORS how much does a narrator know? STREAM OF CONSCIOUSNESS William Faulkner, A Rose for Emily Proud, imperious Emily Grierson defied the town from the fortress of her mansion. Who could have guessed the secret that lay within? Edgar Allan Poe, The Tell-Tale Heart The smoldering eye at last extinguished, a murderer finds that, despite all his attempts at a cover-up, his victim will be heard. Eudora Welty, Why I Live at the P.O. Since no one appreciates Sister, she decides to live at the Post Office. After meeting her family, you won't blame her. James Baldwin, Sonny's Blues Two brothers in Harlem see life differently. The older brother is the sensible family man, but Sonny wants to be a jazz musician. WRITING EFFECTIVELY James Baldwin on Writing, Race and the African American Writer THINKING ABOUT POINT OF VIEW CHECKLIST: Writing About Point of View topics for writing ON POINT OF VIEW TERMS FOR REVIEW 3. Character CHARACTERization motvation Katherine Anne Porter, The Jilting of Granny Weatherall For sixty years Ellen Weatherall has fought back the memory of that terrible day, but now once more the priest waits in the house. Joyce Carol Oates, Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been? Alone in the house, Connie finds herself helpless before the advances of Arnold Friend, a spellbinding imitation teenager. Neil Gaiman, How to Talk to Girls at Parties Two teenage boys try to navigate their way through a party filled with exotic, mysterious girls. Raymond Carver, Cathedral He had never expected to find himself trying to describe a cathedral to a blind man. He hadn't even wanted to meet this odd, old friend of his wife. WRITING EFFECTIVELY Raymond Carver on Writing, Commonplace but Precise Language THINKING ABOUT CHARACTER CHECKLIST: Writing About Character topics for writing ON CHARACTER TERMS FOR REVIEW 4. Setting ELEMENTS OF SETTING HISTORICAL FICTION REGIONALISM NATURALISM Kate Chopin, The Storm Even with her husband away, Calixta feels happily, securely married. Why then should she not shelter an old admirer from the rain? Jack London, To Build a Fire Seventy-five degrees below zero. Alone except for one mistrustful wolf dog, a man finds himself battling a relentless force. ZZ Packer, Brownies A Brownie troop of African American girls at camp declare war on a rival troop only to discover their humiliating mistake. Amy Tan, A Pair of Tickets A young woman flies with her father to China to meet two half sisters she never knew existed. WRITING EFFECTIVELY Amy Tan on Writing, Developing a Setting THINKING ABOUT SETTING CHECKLIST: Writing About Setting TOPICS FOR WRITING ON SETTING TERMS FOR REVIEW 5. Tone and Style TONE STYLE DICTION Ernest Hemingway, A Clean, Well-Lighted Place All by himself each night, the old man lingers in the bright cafe. What does he need more than brandy? William Faulkner, Barn Burning This time when Ab Snopes wields his blazing torch, his son Sarty faces a dilemma: whether to obey or defy the vengeful old man. IRONY O. Henry, The Gift of the Magi A young husband and wife find ingenious ways to buy each other Christmas presents, in the classic story that defines the word "irony." Alice Munro, How I Met My Husband When Edie meets the carnival pilot, her life gets more complicated than she expects. WRITING EFFECTIVELY Ernest Hemingway on Writing, The Direct Style THINKING ABOUT TONE AND STYLE CHECKLIST: Writing About Tone and Style TOPICS FOR WRITING ON TONE AND STYLE TERMS FOR REVIEW 6. Theme PLOT VERSUS THEME summarizing the THEME FINDING THE THEME Stephen Crane, The Open Boat In a lifeboat circled by sharks, tantalized by glimpses of land, a reporter scrutinizes Fate and learns about comradeship. Sandra Cisneros, The House on Mango Street Does where we live tell what we are? A little girl dreams of a new house, but things don't always turn out the way we want them to. Luke, The Parable of the Prodigal Son A father has two sons. One demands his inheritance now and leaves to spend it with ruinous results. Kurt Vonnegut Jr., Harrison Bergeron Are you handsome? Off with your eyebrows! Are you brainy? Let a transmitter sound thought-shattering beeps inside your ear. WRITING EFFECTIVELY Kurt Vonnegut Jr. on Writing, The Themes of Science Fiction THINKING ABOUT THEME CHECKLIST: Writing About Theme TOPICS FOR WRITING ON THEME TERMS FOR REVIEW 7. Symbol ALLEGORY SYMBOLS RECOGNIZING SYMBOLS John Steinbeck, The Chrysanthemums Fenced-in Elisa feels emotionally starved-then her life promises to blossom with the arrival of the scissors-grinding man. Tobias Wolff, Bullet in the Brain Anders is in line when armed robbers enter the bank, and he can't help but get involved. Ursula K. Le Guin, The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas Omelas is the perfect city. All of its inhabitants are happy. But everyone's prosperity depends on a hidden evil. Shirley Jackson, The Lottery Splintered and faded, the sinister black box had worked its annual terror for longer than anyone in town could remember. WRITING EFFECTIVELY Shirley Jackson on Writing, Biography of a Story THINKING ABOUT SYMBOLS CHECKLIST: Writing About Symbols Sample Student Paper on Symbols, An Analysis of the Symbolism in Steinbeck's "The Chrysanthemums" TOPICS FOR WRITING ON SYMBOLS TERMS FOR REVIEW 8. Reading Long Stories and Novels ORIGINS OF THE NOVEL NOVELISTIC METHODS READING NOVELS Leo Tolstoy, The Death of Ivan Ilych The supreme Russian novelist tells how a petty, ambitious judge, near the end of his wasted life, discovers a harrowing truth. Franz Kafka, The Metamorphosis "When Gregor Samsa awoke one morning from troubled dreams, he found himself transformed in his bed into a monstrous insect." Kafka's famous opening sentence introduces one of the most chilling stories in world literature. WRITING EFFECTIVELY Franz Kafka on Writing, Discussing The Metamorphosis THINKING ABOUT LONG STORIES AND NOVELS CHECKLIST: Writing About Long Stories and Novels TOPICS FOR WRITING on long stories and novels TERMS FOR REVIEW 9. Genre Fiction ROMANCE VERSUS REALISM WHAT IS GENRE? TYPES OF GENRE FICTION GENRE AND POPULAR CULTURE Ray Bradbury, A Sound of Thunder In 2055, you can go on a Time Safari to hunt dinosaurs 60 million years ago. But put one foot wrong, and suddenly the future's not what it used to be. Ursula K. Le Guin, The Wife's Story Another full moon, and another terrible transformation-a surprising reversal of a familiar story. H. P. Lovecraft, The Outsider He had been locked in a gothic castle for his entire life, until the day he escaped, but what he discovered outside sent him running back to his dark captivity. Dashiell Hammett, One Hour Someone killed a man named Newhouse in broad daylight on a San Francisco street. Our detective is on the case. WRITING EFFECTIVELY Ray Bradbury on Writing, Fall in Love at the Library TOPICS FOR WRITING TERMS FOR REVIEW 10. Latin American Fiction "EL BOOM" MAGIC REALISM AFTER THE BOOM Jorge Luis Borges, The Gospel According to Mark A young man from Buenos Aires is trapped by a flood on an isolated ranch. To pass the time, he reads the Gospel to a family with unforeseen results. Gabriel Garcia Marquez, A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings What do you do when a worn-out angel crashes in your yard? Sell tickets or call the priest? Juan Rulfo, Tell Them Not to Kill Me! A violent episode from decades past catches up with an old man. Will he be saved from the firing squad? Ines Arredondo, The Shunammite When Luisa went to visit her dying uncle, she had no idea that her life was about to change forever. Writing effectively Jorge Luis Borges on Writing, On Storytelling TOPICS FOR WRITING TERMS FOR REVIEW 11. Critical Casebook: Flannery O'Connor FLANNERY O'CONNOR A Good Man Is Hard to Find Wanted: The Misfit, a cold-blooded killer. An ordinary family vacation leads to horror-and one moment of redeeming grace. Revelation Mrs. Turpin thinks herself Jesus's favorite child, until she meets a troubled college girl. Soon violence flares in a doctor's waiting room. Parker's Back A tormented man tries to find his way to God and to his wife-by having himself tattooed. FLANNERY O'CONNOR ON WRITING Insights into "A Good Man Is Hard to Find" On Her Catholic Faith CRITICS ON FLANNERY O'CONNOR J. O. Tate, A Good Source Is Not So Hard to Find: The Real Life Misfit Louise S. Cowan, The Character of Mrs. Turpin in "Revelation" Damian J. Ference, from "No Vague Believer" Dean Flower, Listening to Flannery O'Connor Lucinda Williams, Meeting Flannery O'Connor WRITING EFFECTIVELY TOPICS FOR WRITING 12. Critical Casebook: Three Stories in Depth NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE Young Goodman Brown Urged on through deepening woods, a young Puritan sees-or dreams he sees-good villagers hasten toward a diabolic rite. NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE ON WRITING Reflections on Truth and Clarity in Literature The Obscurest Man in American Letters CRITICS ON HAWTHORNE Herman Melville, Excerpt from a Review of Mosses from an Old Manse Edgar Allan Poe, The Genius of Hawthorne's Short Stories CRITICS ON "YOUNG GOODMAN BROWN" Richard H. Fogle, Ambiguity in "Young Goodman Brown" Paul J. Hurley, Evil Wherever He Looks Nancy Bunge, Complacency and Community Charlotte Perkins Gilman The Yellow Wallpaper A doctor prescribes a "rest cure" for his wife after the birth of their child. The new mother tries to settle in to life in the isolated and mysterious country house they have rented for the summer. The cure proves worse than the disease in this Gothic classic. CHARLOTTE PERKINS GILMAN ON WRITING Why I Wrote "The Yellow Wallpaper" Whatever Is The Nervous Breakdown of Women CRITICS ON "THE YELLOW WALLPAPER" Juliann Fleenor, Gender and Pathology in "The Yellow Wallpaper" Sandra M. Gilbert and Susan Gubar, Imprisonment and Escape: The Psychology of Confinement ALICE WALKER Everyday Use When successful Dee visits from the city, she has changed her name to reflect her African roots. Her mother and sister notice other things have changed, too. ALICE WALKER ON WRITING Reflections on Writing and Women's Lives CRITICS ON "EVERYDAY USE" Barbara T. Christian, "Everyday Use" and the Black Power Movement Mary Helen Washington, "Everyday Use" as a Portrait of the Artist Houston A. Baker and Charlotte Pierce-Baker, Stylish vs. Sacred in "Everyday Use" WRITING EFFECTIVELY TOPICS FOR WRITING 13. Stories For Further Reading Chinua Achebe, Dead Men's Path The new headmaster of the village school was determined to fight superstition, but the villagers did not agree. Sherman Alexie, This Is What It Means to Say Phoenix, Arizona The only one who can help Victor when his father dies is a childhood friend he's been avoiding for years. Isabel Allende, The Judge's Wife Revenge can take many different forms, but few are as strange as the revenge taken in this passionate tale. Margaret Atwood, Happy Endings John and Mary meet. What happens next? This witty experimental story offers five different outcomes. Ambrose Bierce, An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge At last, Peyton Farquhar's neck is in the noose. Reality mingles with dream in this classic story of the American Civil War. T. Coraghessan Boyle, Greasy Lake Murky and strewn with beer cans, the lake appears a wasteland. On its shore three "dangerous characters" learn a lesson one grim night. Willa Cather, Paul's Case Paul's teachers can't understand the boy. Then one day, with stolen cash, he boards a train for New York and the life of his dreams. Kate Chopin, The Story of an Hour "There was something coming to her and she was waiting for it, fearfully. What was it? She did not know; it was too subtle and elusive to name." Ralph Ellison, Battle Royal A young black man is invited to deliver his high school graduation speech to a gathering of a Southern town's leading white citizens. What promises to be an honor turns into a nightmare of violence, humiliation, and painful self-discovery. Zora Neale Hurston, Sweat Delia's hard work paid for her small house. Now her drunken husband Sykes has promised it to another woman. Ha Jin, Saboteur When the police unfairly arrest Mr. Chiu, he hopes for justice. After witnessing their brutality, he quietly plans revenge. James Joyce, Araby If only he can find her a token, she might love him in return. As night falls, a Dublin boy hurries to make his dream come true. Jamaica Kincaid, Girl "Try to walk like a lady, and not like the slut you are so bent on becoming." An old-fashioned mother tells her daughter how to live. Jhumpa Lahiri, Interpreter of Maladies Mr. Kapasi's life had settled into a quiet pattern-and then Mrs. Das and her family came into it. D. H. Lawrence, The Rocking-Horse Winner Wild-eyed "as if something were going to explode in him," the boy predicts each winning horse, and gamblers rush to bet a thousand pounds. Katherine Mansfield, Miss Brill Sundays had long brought joy to solitary Miss Brill, until one fateful day when she happened to share a bench with two lovers in the park. Guy de Maupassant, The Necklace A woman enjoys one night of luxury-and then spends years of her life paying for it. Tim O'Brien, The Things They Carried What each soldier carried into the combat zone was largely determined by necessity, but each man's necessities differed. Daniel Orozco, Orientation "Those are the offices and these are the cubicles." Welcome to the first day of your new job. David Foster Wallace, Everything Is Green Mayfly and Mitch discuss difficult matters in their trailer. Virginia Woolf, A Haunted House Whatever hour you woke, a door was shutting. From room to room the ghostly couple walked, hand in hand. VOLUME 2 Poetry Talking with Kay Ryan 14. Reading A Poem POETRY OR VERSE HOW TO READ A POEM Paraphrase William Butler Yeats, The Lake Isle of Innisfree Lyric Poetry Robert Hayden, Those Winter Sundays Adrienne Rich, Aunt Jennifer's Tigers Narrative Poetry Anonymous, Sir Patrick Spence Robert Frost, "Out, Out-" DRAMATIC POETRY Robert Browning, My Last Duchess DIDACTIC POETRY WRITING EFFECTIVELY Adrienne Rich on Writing, Recalling "Aunt Jennifer's Tigers" THINKING ABOUT PARAPHRASING William Stafford, Ask Me William Stafford, A Paraphrase of "Ask Me" CHECKLIST: Writing a Paraphrase TOPICS FOR WRITING ON PARAPHRASING TERMS FOR REVIEW 15. Listening To a Voice TONE Theodore Roethke, My Papa's Waltz Stephen Crane, The Wayfarer Anne Bradstreet, The Author to Her Book Walt Whitman, To a Locomotive in Winter Emily Dickinson, I like to see it lap the Miles Gwendolyn Brooks, Speech to the Young. Speech to the Progress-Toward Weldon Kees, For My Daughter THE SPEAKER IN THE POEM Natasha Trethewey, White Lies Edwin Arlington Robinson, Luke Havergal Anonymous, Dog Haiku William Wordsworth, I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud Dorothy Wordsworth, Journal Entry Charlotte Mew, The Farmer's Bride William Carlos Williams, The Red Wheelbarrow IRONY Robert Creeley, Oh No W. H. Auden, The Unknown Citizen Sharon Olds, Rite of Passage Sarah N. Cleghorn, The Golf Links Edna St. Vincent Millay, Second Fig Thomas Hardy, The Workbox FOR REVIEW AND FURTHER STUDY William Blake, The Chimney Sweeper Richard Lovelace, To Lucasta Wilfred Owen, Dulce et Decorum Est WRITING EFFECTIVELY Wilfred Owen on Writing, War Poetry THINKING ABOUT TONE CHECKLIST: Writing About Tone TOPICS FOR WRITING ON TONE Sample Student Paper, Word Choice, Tone, and Point of View in Roethke's "My Papa's Waltz" TERMS FOR REVIEW 16. Words LITERAL MEANING: WHAT A POEM SAYS FIRST William Carlos Williams, This Is Just to Say DICTION John Masefield, Cargoes Robert Graves, Down, Wanton, Down! John Donne, Batter my heart, three-personed God, for You THE VALUE OF A DICTIONARY Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Aftermath J. V. Cunningham, Friend, on this scaffold Thomas More lies dead Samuel Menashe, Bread Carl Sandburg, Grass WORD CHOICE AND WORD ORDER Robert Herrick, Upon Julia's Clothes Kay Ryan, Blandeur Thomas Hardy, The Ruined Maid Richard Eberhart, The Fury of Aerial Bombardment Wendy Cope, Lonely Hearts FOR REVIEW AND FURTHER STUDY E. E. Cummings, anyone lived in a pretty how town Billy Collins, The Names Anonymous, Carnation Milk Gina Valdes, English con Salsa William Wordsworth, My Heart Leaps Up When I Behold William Wordsworth, Mutability Lewis Carroll, Jabberwocky WRITING EFFECTIVELY Lewis Carroll, Humpty Dumpty Explicates "Jabberwocky" THINKING ABOUT DICTION CHECKLIST: Writing About Diction TOPICS FOR WRITING ON WORD CHOICE TERMS FOR REVIEW 17. Saying and Suggesting DENOTATION AND CONNOTATION William Blake, London Wallace Stevens, Disillusionment of Ten O'Clock E. E. Cummings, next to of course god america i Maria Hummel, The Tree Timothy Steele, Epitaph Diane Thiel, The Minefield H. D., Sea Rose Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Tears, Idle Tears Anne-Marie Thompson, Audiation Richard Wilbur, Love Calls Us to the Things of This World WRITING EFFECTIVELY Richard Wilbur on Writing, Concerning "Love Calls Us to the Things of This World" THINKING ABOUT DENOTATION AND CONNOTATION CHECKLIST: Writing About What a Poem Says and Suggests TOPICS FOR WRITING ON DENOTATION AND CONNOTATION TERMS FOR REVIEW 18. Imagery Ezra Pound, In a Station of the Metro Taniguchi Buson, The piercing chill I feel IMAGERY T. S. Eliot, The winter evening settles down Theodore Roethke, Root Cellar Elizabeth Bishop, The Fish Emily Dickinson, A Route of Evanescence Jean Toomer, Reapers Gerard Manley Hopkins, Pied Beauty ABOUT HAIKU Arakida Moritake, The falling flower Matsuo Basho, Heat-lightning streak Matsuo Basho, In the old stone pool Taniguchi Buson, On the one-ton temple bell Taniguchi Buson, Moonrise on mudflats Kobayashi Issa, only one guy Kobayashi Issa, Cricket HAIKU FROM JAPANESE INTERNMENT CAMPS Suiko Matsushita, Rain shower from mountain Suiko Matsushita, Cosmos in bloom Hakuro Wada, Even the croaking of frogs Neiji Ozawa, The war-this year CONTEMPORARY HAIKU Nick Virgilio, The Old Neighborhood Lee Gurga, Visitor's Room Penny Harter, broken bowl Jennifer Brutschy, Born Again Adelle Foley, Learning to Shave Garry Gay, Hole in the ozone FOR REVIEW AND FURTHER STUDY John Keats, Bright star! would I were steadfast as thou art Walt Whitman, The Runner H. D., Heat William Carlos Williams, El Hombre Billy Collins, Embrace Robert Bly, Driving to Town Late to Mail a Letter Chana Bloch, Tired Sex Gary Snyder, Mid-August at Sourdough Mountain Lookout Kevin Prufer, Pause, Pause Stevie Smith, Not Waving but Drowning WRITING EFFECTIVELY Ezra Pound on Writing, The Image THINKING ABOUT IMAGERY CHECKLIST: Writing About Imagery TOPICS FOR WRITING ON IMAGERY Sample Student Paper, Faded Beauty: Elizabeth Bishop's Use of Imagery in "The Fish" TERMS FOR REVIEW 19. Figures of Speech WHY SPEAK FIGURATIVELY? Alfred, Lord Tennyson, The Eagle William Shakespeare, Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? Howard Moss, Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer's Day? METAPHOR AND SIMILE Emily Dickinson, My Life had stood - a Loaded Gun Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Flower in the Crannied Wall William Blake, To see a world in a grain of sand Sylvia Plath, Metaphors N. Scott Momaday, Simile Emily Dickinson, It dropped so low - in my Regard Jill Alexander Essbaum, The Heart Craig Raine, A Martian Sends a Postcard Home OTHER FIGURES OF SPEECH James Stephens, The Wind Robinson Jeffers, Hands Margaret Atwood, You fit into me George Herbert, The Pulley Dana Gioia, Money Carl Sandburg, Fog FOR REVIEW AND FURTHER STUDY Jane Kenyon, The Suitor Robert Frost, The Secret Sits Kay Ryan, Turtle Emily Bronte, Love and Friendship WRITING EFFECTIVELY Robert Frost on Writing, The Importance of Poetic Metaphor THINKING ABOUT METAPHORS CHECKLIST: Writing About Metaphors TOPICS FOR WRITING ON FIGURES OF SPEECH TERMS FOR REVIEW 20. Song SINGING AND SAYING Ben Jonson, To Celia James Weldon Johnson, Sence You Went Away William Shakespeare, Fear no more the heat o' the sun Edwin Arlington Robinson, Richard Cory Paul Simon, Richard Cory BALLADS Anonymous, Bonny Barbara Allan Dudley Randall, Ballad of Birmingham BLUES Bessie Smith with Clarence Williams, Jailhouse Blues W. H. Auden, Funeral Blues RAP FOR REVIEW AND FURTHER STUDY Neko Case, This Tornado Loves You Bob Dylan, The Times They Are a-Changin' WRITING EFFECTIVELY Bob Dylan on Writing, Rhythm, Rime, and Songwriting from the Outside THINKING ABOUT POETRY AND SONG CHECKLIST: Writing About Song Lyrics TOPICS FOR WRITING ON SONG LYRICS TERMS FOR REVIEW 21. Sound SOUND AS MEANING Alexander Pope, True Ease in Writing comes from Art, not Chance William Butler Yeats, Who Goes with Fergus? Edgar Allan Poe, from Ulalume William Wordsworth, A Slumber Did My Spirit Seal Aphra Behn, When maidens are young ALLITERATION AND ASSONANCE Frances Cornford, The Watch James Joyce, All day I hear Alfred, Lord Tennyson, The splendor falls on castle walls RIME William Cole, On my boat on Lake Cayuga Hilaire Belloc, The Hippopotamus Bob Kaufman, No More Jazz at Alcatraz William Butler Yeats, Leda and the Swan Gerard Manley Hopkins, God's Grandeur How to read a POEM ALOUD Michael Stillman, In Memoriam John Coltrane William Shakespeare, When Daisies Pied and Violets Blue T. S. Eliot, Virginia WRITING EFFECTIVELY T. S. Eliot on Writing, The Music of Poetry THINKING ABOUT A POEM'S SOUND CHECKLIST: Writing About a Poem's Sound TOPICS FOR WRITING ON SOUND TERMS FOR REVIEW 22. Rhythm STRESSES AND PAUSES STRESS AND Meaning line endings Gwendolyn Brooks, We Real Cool Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Break, Break, Break George Gordon, Lord Byron, So We'll Go No More a-Roving Dorothy Parker, Resume METER Edna St. Vincent Millay, Counting-out Rhyme Edith Sitwell, Mariner Man A. E. Housman, When I was one-and-twenty William Carlos Williams, Smell! Walt Whitman, Beat! Beat! Drums! WRITING EFFECTIVELY Gwendolyn Brooks on Writing, Hearing "We Real Cool" THINKING ABOUT RHYTHM CHECKLIST: Scanning a Poem TOPICS FOR WRITING ON RHYTHM TERMS FOR REVIEW 23. Closed Form the value of form FORMAL PATTERNS Ernest Dowson, "Days of Wine and Roses" John Donne, Song ("Go and catch a falling star") Thomas M. Disch, Zewhyexary THE SONNET William Shakespeare, Let me not to the marriage of true minds Michael Drayton, Since there's no help, come let us kiss and part Edna St. Vincent Millay, What lips my lips have kissed, and where, and why Kim Addonizio, First Poem for You Mark Jarman, Unholy Sonnet: Hands Folded A. E. Stallings, Aftershocks Amit Majmudar, Rites to Allay the Dead R. S. Gwynn, Shakespearean Sonnet Sherman Alexie, The Facebook Sonnet Wilfred Owen, Anthem for Doomed Youth THE EPIGRAM Sir John Harrington, Of Treason William Blake, To H- Langston Hughes, Two Somewhat Different Epigrams Dorothy Parker, The Actress John Frederick Nims, Contemplation Hilaire Belloc, Fatigue Wendy Cope, Variation on Belloc's "Fatigue" Anonymous, Epitaph On A Dentist OTHER FORMS Dylan Thomas, Do not go gentle into that good night Robert Bridges, Triolet Paul Laurence Dunbar, We Wear the Mask Elizabeth Bishop, Sestina WRITING EFFECTIVELY A. E. Stallings on Writing, On Form and Artifice THINKING ABOUT A SONNET CHECKLIST: Writing About a Sonnet TOPICS FOR WRITING ON closed form TERMS FOR REVIEW 24. Open Form Denise Levertov, Ancient Stairway FREE VERSE E. E. Cummings, Buffalo Bill 's W. S. Merwin, For the Anniversary of My Death William Carlos Williams, The Dance Stephen Crane, The Heart Walt Whitman, Cavalry Crossing a Ford Ezra Pound, Salutation Wallace Stevens, Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Blackbird PROSE POETRY Charles Simic, The Magic Study of Happiness Gertrude Stein, from Tender Buttons VISUAL POETRY George Herbert, Easter Wings John Hollander, Swan and Shadow CONCRETE POETRY Dorthi Charles, Concrete Cat FOR REVIEW AND FURTHER STUDY E. E. Cummings, in Just- Francisco X. Alarcon, Frontera / Border Carole Satyamurti, I Shall Paint My Nails Red Naomi Shihab Nye, The Traveling Onion WRITING EFFECTIVELY Walt Whitman on Writing, The Poetry of the Future THINKING ABOUT FREE VERSE CHECKLIST: Writing About Line Breaks TOPICS FOR WRITING ON OPEN FORM TERMS FOR REVIEW 25. Symbol THE MEANINGS OF A SYMBOL T. S. Eliot, The Boston Evening Transcript Emily Dickinson, The Lightning is a yellow Fork THE SYMBOLIST MOVEMENT IDENTIFYING SYMBOLS Thomas Hardy, Neutral Tones ALLEGORY Matthew, The Parable of the Good Seed George Herbert, Redemption Edwin Markham, Outwitted Suji Kwock Kim, Occupation Antonio Machado, Proverbios y Cantares (XXIX) Translated by Dana Gioia, Traveler Christina Rossetti, Up-Hill FOR REVIEW AND FURTHER STUDY William Carlos Williams, The Young Housewife Ted Kooser, Carrie Mary Oliver, Wild Geese Tami Haaland, Lipstick Lorine Niedecker, Popcorn-can cover Wallace Stevens, The Snow Man Wallace Stevens, Anecdote of the Jar William Blake, The Tyger WRITING EFFECTIVELY William Butler Yeats on Writing, Poetic Symbols THINKING ABOUT SYMBOLS CHECKLIST: Writing About Symbols TOPICS FOR WRITING ON SYMBOLISM TERMS FOR REVIEW 26. Myth and Narrative The subjects and uses OF MYTH origins OF MYTH Robert Frost, Nothing Gold Can Stay William Wordsworth, The world is too much with us H. D., Helen Edgar Allan Poe, To Helen ARCHETYPE Louise Bogan, Medusa John Keats, La Belle Dame sans Merci PERSONAL MYTH William Butler Yeats, The Second Coming Diane Thiel, Memento Mori in Middle School MYTH AND POPULAR CULTURE Charles Martin, Taken Up for review and further study A. E. Stallings, First Love: A Quiz Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Ulysses Anne Sexton, Cinderella WRITING EFFECTIVELY Diane Thiel on Writing, Map of Myth THINKING ABOUT MYTH CHECKLIST: Writing About Myth TOPICS FOR WRITING ON MYTH Sample Student Paper, The Bonds Between Love and Hatred in H. D.'s "Helen" TERMS FOR REVIEW 27. Poetry and Personal Identity CONFESSIONAL POETRY Sylvia Plath, Lady Lazarus IDENTITY POETICS Rhina Espaillat, Bilingual/Bilingue CULTURE, RACE, AND ETHNICITY Claude McKay, America Shirley Geok-lin Lim, Riding into California Francisco X. Alarcon, The X in My Name Judith Ortiz Cofer, Quinceanera Sherman Alexie, The Powwow at the End of the World Yusef Komunyakaa, Facing It GENDER Anne Stevenson, The Victory Rafael Campo, For J. W. James Wright, Autumn Begins in Martins Ferry, Ohio Adrienne Rich, Women FOR REVIEW AND FURTHER STUDY Brian Turner, The Hurt Locker Philip Larkin, Aubade WRITING EFFECTIVELY Rhina Espaillat on Writing, Being a Bilingual Writer THINKING ABOUT POETIC VOICE AND IDENTITY CHECKLIST: Writing About Voice and Personal Identity TOPICS FOR WRITING ON PERSONAL IDENTITY terms for review 28. Translation IS POETIC TRANSLATION POSSIBLE? WORLD POETRY Li Po, Drinking Alone Beneath the Moon (Chinese text) Li Po, Yue Xia Du Zhuo (phonetic Chinese transcription) Li Po, Moon-beneath Alone Drink (literal translation) Translated by Arthur Waley, Drinking Alone by Moonlight COMPARING TRANSLATIONS Horace, "Carpe Diem" Ode (Latin text) Horace, "Carpe Diem" Ode (literal translation) Translated by Edwin Arlington Robinson, Horace to Leuconoe Translated by A. E. Stallings, A New Year's Toast TRANSLATING FORM Omar Khayyam, Rubai XII (Persian text) Omar Khayyam, Rubai XII (literal translation) Translated by Edward FitzGerald, A Book of Verses underneath the Bough Translated by Dick Davis, I Need a Bare Sufficiency Omar Khayyam, Rubaiyat Translated by Edward FitzGerald, Come, fill the Cup, and in the fire of Spring Translated by Edward FitzGerald, Some for the Glories of this World Translated by Edward FitzGerald, I sometimes think that never blows so red Translated by Edward FitzGerald, The Moving Finger writes Translated by Edward FitzGerald, Ah Love! could you and I with Him conspire PARODY Anonymous, We four lads from Liverpool are Andrea Patterson, Because I Could Not Dump Francis Heaney, We Long Bony Dorks Aaron Abeyta, thirteen ways of looking at a tortilla WRITING EFFECTIVELY Arthur Waley on Writing, The Method of Translation THINKING ABOUT PARODY CHECKLIST: Writing a Parody TOPICS FOR WRITING ON PARODY terms for review 29. Poetry in Spanish: Literature of Latin America Sor Juana, Presente en que el Carino Hace Regalo la Llaneza Translated by Diane Thiel, A Simple Gift Made Rich by Affection Pablo Neruda, Muchos Somos Translated by Alastair Reid, We Are Many Jorge Luis Borges, On his blindness Translated by Robert Mezey, On His Blindness Octavio Paz, Con los ojos cerrados Translated by Eliot Weinberger, With eyes closed SURREALISM IN LATIN AMERICAN POETRY Frida Kahlo, The Two Fridas Cesar Vallejo, La colera que quiebra al hombre en ninos Translated by Thomas Merton, Anger CONTEMPORARY MEXICAN POETRY Jose Emilio Pacheco, Alta Traicion Translated by Alastair Reid, High Treason Elva Macias, Comi los frutos elegidos Translated by Kimberly Gooden, I Ate the Fruits Chosen by the Wind WRITING EFFECTIVELY Alastair Reid on Writing, Translating Neruda TOPICS FOR WRITING ON SPANISH POETRY 30. Recognizing Excellence Anonymous, O Moon, when I gaze on thy beautiful face Emily Dickinson, A Dying Tiger - moaned for Drink SENTIMENTALITY Rod McKuen, Thoughts on Capital Punishment William Stafford, Traveling Through the Dark RECOGNIZING EXCELLENCE William Butler Yeats, Sailing to Byzantium Arthur Guiterman, On the Vanity of Earthly Greatness Percy Bysshe Shelley, Ozymandias Robert Hayden, The Whipping Elizabeth Bishop, One Art Langston Hughes, I, Too John Keats, Ode to a Nightingale Dylan Thomas, In My Craft or Sullen Art Walt Whitman, O Captain! My Captain! Emma Lazarus, The New Colossus Edgar Allan Poe, Annabel Lee WRITING EFFECTIVELY Edgar Allan Poe on Writing, A Long Poem Does Not Exist THINKING ABOUT EVALUATING A POEM CHECKLIST: Writing an Evaluation TOPICS FOR WRITING ON EVALUATING A POEM TERMS FOR REVIEW 31. What Is Poetry? some definitions of poetry Dante, Samuel Johnson, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, William Wordsworth, Thomas Hardy, Emily Dickinson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, Robert Frost, Wallace Stevens, Mina Loy, T. S. Eliot, W. H. Auden, Jose Garcia Villa, Christopher Fry, Elizabeth Bishop, Joy Harjo, Octavio Paz, Denise Levertov, Lucille Clifton, Charles Simic, - 32. Three Critical Casebooks: Emily Dickinson, Langston Hughes, and Robert Frost EMILY DICKINSON Success is counted sweetest I taste a liquor never brewed Wild Nights - Wild Nights! I felt a Funeral, in my Brain I'm Nobody! Who are you? The Soul selects her own Society Some keep the Sabbath going to Church Much Madness is divinest Sense This is my letter to the World I heard a Fly buzz - when I died I started Early - Took my Dog Because I could not stop for Death Tell all the Truth but tell it slant EMILY DICKINSON ON WRITING Recognizing Poetry Self-Description CRITICS ON EMILY DICKINSON Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Meeting Emily Dickinson Thomas H. Johnson, The Discovery of Emily Dickinson's Manuscriptsx Richard Wilbur, The Three Privations of Emily Dickinson Cynthia Griffin Wolff, Dickinson and Death (A Reading of "Because I could not stop for Death") Judith Farr, A Reading of "My Life had stood - a Loaded Gun" LANGSTON HUGHES The Negro Speaks of Rivers The Negro My People Song for a Banjo Dance Mother to Son Song for a Dark Girl Prayer Luck Theme for English B Nightmare Boogie Harlem [Dream Deferred] Ballad of Booker T. Homecoming LANGSTON HUGHES ON WRITING The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain The Harlem Renaissance CRITICS ON LANGSTON HUGHES Arnold Rampersad, Hughes as an Experimentalist Rita Dove and Marilyn Nelson, The Voices in Langston Hughes Darryl Pinckney, Black Identity in Langston Hughes Peter Townsend, Langston Hughes and Jazz Onwuchekwa Jemie, A Reading of "Dream Deferred" ROBERT FROST Mowing Mending Wall After Apple-picking The Road Not Taken Birches Design Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening Fire and Ice Acquainted with the Night Desert Places The Silken Tent Home Burial ROBERT FROST ON WRITING The Sound of Sense The Figure a Poem Makes "There Are Two Types of Realist": An Interview with Robert Frost CRITICS ON ROBERT FROST Katherine Kearns, On "Mending Wall" Ezra Pound, An Honest Writer Rhina Espaillat, Translating Frost into Spanish William H. Pritchard, from "Forms of Guardedness" Dana Gioia, Robert Frost's Dramatic Narratives WRITING EFFECTIVELY TOPICS FOR WRITING 33. Critical Casebook: T. S. Eliot's "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock" T. S. ELIOT The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock PUBLISHING "PRUFROCK" THE REVIEWERS ON PRUFROCK Unsigned, Review from Times Literary Supplement Unsigned, Review from Literary World Conrad Aiken, from "Divers Realists," The Dial Babette Deutsch, from "Another Impressionist," The New Republic Marianne Moore, from "A Note on T. S. Eliot's Book," Poetry May Sinclair, from "Prufrock and Other Observations: A Criticism," The Little Review T. S. ELIOT ON WRITING Poetry and Emotion The Objective Correlative The Difficulty of Poetry CRITICS ON "PRUFROCK" Denis Donoghue, One of the Irrefutable Poets Christopher Ricks, What's in a Name? Philip R. Headings, The Pronouns in the Poem: "One," "You," and "I" Maud Ellmann, Will There Be Time? Burton Raffel, "Indeterminacy" in Eliot's Poetry WRITING EFFECTIVELY TOPICS FOR WRITING 34. Poems for Further Reading Julia Alvarez, By Accident Anonymous (Scottish ballad), Lord Randall Anonymous (Navajo chant), Last Words of the Prophet Matthew Arnold, Dover Beach John Ashbery, At North Farm W. H. Auden, As I Walked Out One Evening W. H. Auden, Musee des Beaux Arts Jimmy Santiago Baca, Spliced Wire Elizabeth Bishop, Filling Station William Blake, The Sick Rose Gwendolyn Brooks, the mother Gwendolyn Brooks, the rites for Cousin Vit Elizabeth Barrett Browning, How Do I Love Thee? Let Me Count the Ways Robert Browning, Soliloquy of the Spanish Cloister Charles Bukowski, Dostoevsky Geoffrey Chaucer, Merciless Beauty G.K. Chesterton, The Donkey John Ciardi, Most Like an Arch This Marriage Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Kubla Khan Billy Collins, Care and Feeding Hart Crane, My Grandmother's Love Letters E. E. Cummings, somewhere i have never travelled, gladly beyond Marisa de los Santos, Perfect Dress Michael Donaghy, Our Life Stories John Donne, Death be not proud John Donne, The Flea John Donne, A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning T. S. Eliot, Journey of the Magi Allen Ginsberg, A Supermarket in California Thomas Hardy, The Convergence of the Twain Thomas Hardy, Hap Seamus Heaney, Digging William Ernest Henley, Invictus George Herbert, Love Robert Herrick, To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time Gerard Manley Hopkins, Spring and Fall Gerard Manley Hopkins, The Windhover A. E. Housman, Loveliest of trees, the cherry now A. E. Housman, To an Athlete Dying Young Randall Jarrell, The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner Robinson Jeffers, Fire on the Hills Ha Jin, Missed Time Ben Jonson, On My First Son Donald Justice, On the Death of Friends in Childhood John Keats, Ode on a Grecian Urn John Keats, When I have fears that I may cease to be Ted Kooser, Abandoned Farmhouse Philip Larkin, Home is so Sad Philip Larkin, Poetry of Departures D. H. Lawrence, Piano Li-Young Lee, Out of Hiding Denise Levertov, O Taste and See Shirley Geok-lin Lim, Learning to love America Robert Lowell, Skunk Hour Andrew Marvell, To His Coy Mistress David Mason, Ballade at 3 AM Claude McKay, The Harlem Dancer Edna St. Vincent Millay, Recuerdo John Milton, When I consider how my light is spent Marianne Moore, Poetry Marilyn Nelson, A Strange Beautiful Woman Lorine Niedecker, Sorrow Moves in Wide Waves Sylvia Plath, Daddy Alexander Pope, A little Learning is a dang'rous Thing Ezra Pound, The River-Merchant's Wife: A Letter John Crowe Ransom, Piazza Piece Henry Reed, Naming of Parts Adrienne Rich, Living in Sin Edwin Arlington Robinson, Miniver Cheevy Christina Rossetti, When I am dead, my dearest Kay Ryan, That Will to Divest William Shakespeare, When, in disgrace with Fortune and men's eyes William Shakespeare, When to the sessions of sweet silent thought William Shakespeare, My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun Charles Simic, Butcher Shop Christopher Smart, For I will consider my Cat Jeoffry Cathy Song, Stamp Collecting Wallace Stevens, The Emperor of Ice-Cream Jonathan Swift, A Description of the Morning Dylan Thomas, Fern Hill Amy Uyematsu, Deliberate Derek Walcott, Sea Grapes Edmund Waller, Go, Lovely Rose Walt Whitman, from Song of the Open Road Walt Whitman, I Hear America Singing Walt Whitman, When I Heard the Learn'd Astonomer William Carlos Williams, Spring and All William Carlos Williams, Queen-Anne's-Lace William Wordsworth, Composed upon Westminster Bridge Mary Sidney Wroth, In this strange labyrinth Sir Thomas Wyatt, They flee from me that sometime did me seke William Butler Yeats, He wishes for the Cloths of heaven William Butler Yeats, The Magi William Butler Yeats, When You Are Old VOLUME 3 Drama Talking with David Ives 35. Reading a Play interpreting plays THEATRICAL CONVENTIONS Elements of a Play Susan Glaspell, Trifles Was Minnie Wright to blame for the death of her husband? While the menfolk try to unravel a mystery, two women in the kitchen turn up revealing clues. Analyzing Trifles WRITING EFFECTIVELY Susan Glaspell on Writing, Creating Trifles THINKING ABOUT A PLAY CHECKLIST: Writing About a Play TOPICS FOR WRITING ON trifles Sample Student Paper, Outside Trifles TERMS FOR REVIEW 36. Modes of Drama: Tragedy and Comedy TRAGEDY Christopher Marlowe, Scene from Doctor Faustus (Act x, Scene x) In this scene from the classic drama, a brilliant scholar sells his soul to the devil. How smart is that? COMEDY Oscar Wilde, Scene from The Importance of Being Earnest (Act 1, Scene 1-Lady Bracknell Interviews Her Daughter's Suitor) Lady Bracknell is no softie when interviewing a potential future son-in-law. David Ives, Soap Opera Should a man choose a mere human lover instead of pure perfection? The world turns on the answer. WRITING EFFECTIVELY David Ives on Writing, On the One-Act Play THINKING ABOUT COMEDY CHECKLIST: Writing About Comedy TOPICS FOR WRITING ABOUT TRAGEDY TOPICS FOR WRITING ABOUT COMEDY TERMS FOR REVIEW 37. Critical Casebook: Sophocles THE THEATER OF SOPHOCLES THE CIVIC ROLE OF GREEK DRAMA ARISTOTLE'S CONCEPT OF TRAGEDY SOPHOCLES THE ORIGINS OF OEDIPUS THE KING Sophocles, Oedipus the King (Translated by David Grene) The dark story of Oedipus is considered by many to be the greatest example of classical Greek tragedy. THE BACKGROUND OF ANTIGONE Sophocles, Antigone (Translated by David Grene) In one of the monumental plays of classical Greek drama, a daughter of Oedipus strives to give the body of her slain brother a proper burial. Soon she finds herself in conflict with a king. CRITICS ON SOPHOCLES Aristotle, Defining Tragedy Sigmund Freud, The Destiny of Oedipus A. E. Haigh, The Irony of Sophocles David Wiles, The Chorus as Democrat Jean Anouihl, Tragic Destiny Patricia M. Lines, What Is Antigone's Tragic Flaw? WRITING EFFECTIVELY A. E. Haigh on Writing, The Style of Sophocles THINKING ABOUT GREEK TRAGEDY CHECKLIST: Writing About Greek Drama TOPICS FOR WRITING ON SOPHOCLES TERMS FOR REVIEW 38. Critical Casebook: Shakespeare THE THEATER OF SHAKESPEARE WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE A NOTE ON OTHELLO PICTURING OTHELLO William Shakespeare, Othello, the Moor of Venice Here is a story of jealousy, that "green-eyed monster which doth mock / The meat it feeds on"-of a passionate, suspicious man and his blameless wife, of a serpent masked as a friend. THE BACKGROUND OF HAMLET PICTURING HAMLET William Shakespeare, Hamlet, Prince of Denmark In perhaps the most celebrated play in English, a ghost demands that young Prince Hamlet avenge his father's "most foul and unnatural murder." But how can Hamlet be sure that the apparition is indeed his father's spirit? THE BACKGROUND OF A MIDSUMMER NIGHT'S DREAM Picturing a midsummer night's dream William Shakespeare, A Midsummer Night's Dream "The course of true love never did run smooth" is the right motto for this romantic comedy in which love, magic, and mistaken identity combine for madcap results. CRITICS ON SHAKESPEARE Anthony Burgess, An Asian Culture Looks at Shakespeare W. H. Auden, Iago as a Triumphant Villain Maud Bodkin, Lucifer in Shakespeare's Othello Virginia Mason Vaughan, Black and White in Othello A. C. Bradley, Hamlet's Melancholy Rebecca West, Hamlet and Ophelia Edgar Allan Poe, Hamlet as a Fictional Character Samuel Johnson, Shakespeare's Universality Clare Asquith, Shakespeare's Language as a Hidden Political Code Germaine Greer, Shakespeare's "Honest Mirth" Linda Bamber, Female Power in A Midsummer Night's Dream WRITING EFFECTIVELY Ben Jonson on Writing, On His Friend and Rival William Shakespeare UNDERSTANDING SHAKESPEARE CHECKLIST: Writing About Shakespeare TOPICS FOR WRITING ON shakespeare Sample Student Paper, Othello: Tragedy or Soap Opera? 39. The Modern Theater REALISM NATURALISM SYMBOLISM AND EXPRESSIONISM AMERICAN MODERNISM Henrik Ibsen, A Doll's House (Translated by R. Farquharson Sharp, revised by Viktoria Michelsen) x The founder of modern drama portrays a troubled marriage. Helmer, the bank manager, regards his wife Nora as a "little featherbrain"-not knowing the truth may shatter his smug world. Henrik Ibsen on Writing, Correspondence on the Final Scene of A Doll's House Tennessee Williams, The Glass Menagerie Painfully shy and retiring, shunning love, Laura dwells in a world as fragile as her collection of tiny figurines-until one memorable night a gentleman comes to call. Tennessee Williams on Writing, How to Stage The Glass Menagerie TRAGICOMEDY AND THE ABSURD RETURN TO REALISM EXPERIMENTAL DRAMA Milcha Sanchez-Scott, The Cuban Swimmer Nineteen-year-old Margarita Suarez wants to win a Southern California distance swimming race. Is her family behind her? Quite literally! Milcha Sanchez-Scott on Writing, Writing The Cuban Swimmer DOCUMENTARY DRAMA Anna Deavere Smith, Scenes from Twilight: Los Angeles, The violence that tore apart a city, in the words of those who were there. Anna Deavere Smith on Writing, On Documentary Theaterx WRITING EFFECTIVELY THINKING ABOUT DRAMATIC REALISM CHECKLIST: Writing About a Realist Play TOPICS FOR WRITING ON REALISM Sample Student Paper, Helmer vs. Helmer TERMS FOR REVIEW 40. Evaluating a Play WRITING EFFECTIVELY JUDGING A PLAY CHECKLIST: Evaluating a Play TOPICS FOR WRITING ON EVALUATION 41. Plays for Further Reading David Henry Hwang, The Sound of a Voice A strange man arrives at a solitary woman's home in the remote countryside. As they fall in love, they discover disturbing secrets about one another's past. David Henry Hwang on Writing, Multicultural Theater Edward Bok Lee, El Santo Americano A wrestler and his unhappy wife drive through the desert to a surprising conclusion. Edward Bok Lee on Writing, On Being a Korean American Writer Jane Martin, Pomp and Circumstance The King interviews a musician for the position of court composer Brighde Mullins, Click A long-distance phone call leads to darkly comic misunderstandings between this man and woman. Brighde Mullins on Writing, Advice for Young Playwrights August Wilson, Fences A proud man's love for his family is choked by his rigidity and self-righteousness, in this powerful drama by one of the great American playwrights of our time. August Wilson on Writing, A Look into Black America VOLUME 4 Writing 42. Writing About Literature READ ACTIVELY Robert Frost, Nothing Gold Can Stay PLAN YOUR ESSAY PREWRITING: GENERATE IDEAS AND ISSUES Sample Student Prewriting Exercises DEVELOP YOUR ARGUMENT STRENGTHEN YOUR ARGUMENT: RHETORICAL APPEALS x Logical Argumentation and Evidence Emotional Argumentation Credibility: Tone, Balance, and Organization CHECKLIST: Developing an Argument DRAFT YOUR ARGUMENT Sample Student Paper, Rough Draft REVISE YOUR ARGUMENT CHECKLIST: Revising Your Argument FINAL ADVICE ON REWRITING SAMPLE STUDENT ARGUMENT PAPER Sample Student Paper, Argument DOCUMENT SOURCES TO AVOID PLAGIARISM THE FORM OF YOUR FINISHED PAPER SPELL-CHECK AND GRAMMAR-CHECK PROGRAMS Anonymous (after a poem by Jerrold H. Zar), A Little Poem Regarding Computer Spell Checkers 43. Writing About a Story READ ACTIVELY THINK ABOUT THE STORY PREWRITING: generate ideas and issues Sample Student Prewriting Exercises draft your argument CHECKLIST: Drafting Your Argument REVISE YOUR DRAFT CHECKLIST: Revising Your Argument WHAT'S YOUR PURPOSE? COMMON APPROACHES TO WRITING ABOUT FICTION Explication Sample Student Paper, Explication Analysis Sample Student Paper, Analysis The Card Report Sample Student Card Report Comparison and Contrast Sample Student Paper, Comparison and Contrast Response Paper Sample Student Response Paper TOPICS FOR WRITING 44. Writing About a Poem READ ACTIVELY Robert Frost, Design THINK ABOUT THE POEM PREWRITING: generate ideas and issues Sample Student Prewriting Exercises draft your argument CHECKLIST: Drafting your Argument REVISE YOUR DRAFT CHECKLIST: Revising Your Draft COMMON APPROACHES TO WRITING ABOUT POETRY Explication Sample Student Paper, Explication A Critic's Explication of Frost's "Design" Analysis x Sample Student Paper, Analysis Comparison and Contrast Abbie Huston Evans, Wing-Spread Sample Student Paper, Comparison and Contrast HOW TO QUOTE A POEM TOPICS FOR WRITING Robert Frost, In White 45. Writing About a Play READ CRITICALLY COMMON APPROACHES TO WRITING ABOUT DRAMA Explication Analysis Comparison and Contrast Card Report Sample Student Card Report A Drama Review Sample Student Drama Review HOW TO QUOTE A PLAY TOPICS FOR WRITING 46. Writing a Research Paper BROWSE THE RESEARCH CHOOSE A TOPIC BEGIN YOUR RESEARCH Reliable Web Sources Print Resources Online Databases CHECKLIST: Finding Reliable Sources Visual Images CHECKLIST: Using Visual Images EVALUATE YOUR SOURCES Trustworthy Resources Build Your Paper's Credibility CHECKLIST: Evaluating Your Sources ORGANIZE YOUR RESEARCH CREATE AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY REFINE YOUR THESIS ORGANIZE YOUR PAPER WRITE AND REVISE MAINTAIN ACADEMIC INTEGRITY What Is Plagiarism? Papers for Sale Are Papers that "Fail" A Warning Against Internet Plagiarism ACKNOWLEDGE ALL SOURCES Using Quotations Citing Ideas DOCUMENT SOURCES USING MLA STYLE List of Sources Parenthetical References Works-Cited List Citing Print Sources in MLA Style Citing Web Sources in MLA Style Sample List of Works Cited ENDNOTES AND FOOTNOTES Adding Footnotes CONCLUDING THOUGHTS WRITING ASSIGNMENT FOR A RESEARCH PAPER Sample Student Research Paper Sample Student Research Paper Reference Guide for mla Citations 47. Writing As Discovery: Keeping a Journal THE REWARDS OF KEEPING A JOURNAL Sample Journal Entry Sample Student Journal 48. Writing an Essay Exam CHECKLIST: Taking an Essay Exam 49. Critical Approaches to Literature FORMALIST CRITICISM Cleanth Brooks, The Formalist Critic Michael Clark, Light and Darkness in "Sonny's Blues" BIOGRAPHICAL CRITICISM Brett C. Millier, On Elizabeth Bishop's "One Art" Emily Toth, The Source for Alcee Laballiere in "The Storm" HISTORICAL CRITICISM Hugh Kenner, Imagism Seamus Deane, Joyce's Vision of Dublin PSYCHOLOGICAL CRITICISM Sigmund Freud, The Nature of Dreams Daniel Hoffman, The Father-Figure in "The Tell-Tale Heart" MYTHOLOGICAL CRITICISM Carl Jung, The Collective Unconscious and Archetypes Edmond Volpe, Myth in Faulkner's "Barn Burning" SOCIOLOGICAL CRITICISM Georg Lukacs, Content Determines Form Daniel P. Watkins, Money and Labor in "The Rocking-Horse Winner" GENDER CRITICISM Nina Pelikan Straus, Transformations in The Metamorphosis Richard R. Bozorth, "Tell Me the Truth About Love" READER-RESPONSE CRITICISM Stanley Fish, An Eskimo "A Rose for Emily" Robert Scholes, "How Do We Make a Poem?" CULTURAL STUDIES Mark Bauerlein, What Is Cultural Studies? Camille Paglia, A Reading of William Blake's "The Chimney Sweeper" TERMS FOR REVIEW Glossary of Literary Terms Literary Credits Photo Credits Index of Major Themes Index of First Lines of Poetry Index of Authors and Titles Index of Literary Terms

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  • publication date: 08/01/2015
  • ISBN13: 9780321998521
  • Format: Hardback
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  • ID: 9780321998521
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  • ISBN10: 0321998529
  • edition: 13th Revised edition

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