Lithium batteries were introduced relatively recently in comparison to lead- or nickel-based batteries, which have been around for over 100 years. Nevertheless, in the space of 20 years, they have acquired a considerable market share particularly for the supply of mobile devices. We are still a long way from exhausting the possibilities that they offer. Numerous projects will undoubtedly further improve their performances in the years to come. For large-scale storage systems, other types of batteries are also worthy of consideration: hot batteries and redox flow systems, for example. This book begins by showing the diversity of applications for secondary batteries and the main characteristics required of them in terms of storage. After a chapter presenting the definitions and measuring methods used in the world of electrochemical storage, and another that gives examples of the applications of batteries, the remainder of this book is given over to describing the batteries developed recently (end of the 20th Century) which are now being commercialized, as well as those with a bright future.
The authors also touch upon the increasingly rapid evolution of the technologies, particularly regarding lithium batteries, for which the avenues of research are extremely varied. Contents Part 1. Storage Requirements Characteristics of Secondary Batteries Examples of Use 1. Breakdown of Storage Requirements. 2. Definitions and Measuring Methods. 3. Practical Examples Using Electrochemical Storage. Part 2. Lithium Batteries 4. Introduction to Lithium Batteries. 5. The Basic Elements in Lithium-ion Batteries: Electrodes, Electrolytes and Collectors. 6. Usual Lithium-ion Batteries. 7. Present and Future Developments Regarding Lithium-ion Batteries. 8. Lithium-Metal Polymer Batteries. 9. Lithium-Sulfur Batteries. 10. Lithium-Air Batteries. 11. Lithium Resources. Part 3. Other Types of Batteries 12. Other Types of Batteries. About the Authors Christian Glaize is Professor at the University of Montpellier, France. He is also Researcher in the Materials and Energy Group (GEM) of the Institute for Electronics (IES), France.
Sylvie Genies is a project manager at the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (Commissariat a l Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives) in Grenoble, France.
Christian Glaize is Professor at the University of Montpellier, France. He is also Researcher in the Materials and Energy Group (GEM) of the Institute for Electronics (IES), France. Sylvie Genies is a project manager at the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (Commissariat a l Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives) in Grenoble, France.
Preface xiii Acknowledgements xv Introduction xvii PART 1 STORAGE REQUIREMENTS CHARACTERISTICS OF SECONDARY BATTERIES EXAMPLES OF USE 1 Chapter 1 Breakdown of Storage Requirements 3 1.1.Introduction 3 1.2.Domains of application for energy storage 3 1.3.Review of storage requirements and appropriate technologies 18 1.4. Conclusion 19 Chapter 2. Definitions and Measuring Methods 21 2.1. Introduction 21 2.2.Terminology 21 2.3.Definitions of the characteristics 27 2.4.States of the battery 40 2.5.Faradaic efficiency 66 2.6.Self-discharge 67 2.7.Acceptance current 68 2.8.Conclusion 69 2.9.Appendix 1: Nernst s law 69 2.10.Appendix 2: Double layer 78 2.11.Appendix 3: Warburg impedance 79 2.12.Solutions to the exercises in Chapter 2 82 Chapter 3. Practical Examples Using Electrochemical Storage 89 3.1.Introduction 89 3.2. Conclusion 109 3.3. Solution to the exercises in Chapter 3 110 PART 2. LITHIUM BATTERIES 115 Chapter 4.Introduction to Lithium Batteries 117 4.1.History of lithium batteries 117 4.2.Categories of lithium batteries 121 4.3. The different operational mechanisms for lithium batteries 122 4.4.Appendices 131 Chapter 5.The Basic Elements in Lithium-ion Batteries: Electrodes, Electrolytes and Collectors 135 5.1.Introduction 135 5.2.Operation of lithium-ion technology 136 5.3.Positive electrodes 138 5.4.Negative electrodes 146 5.5.Electrolyte 158 5.6.Current collectors 161 5.7.Conclusion 162 5.8.Solution to exercises in Chapter 5 162 Chapter 6. Usual Lithium-ion Batteries 167 6.1.Principle of operation of conventional assemblies of electrodes 167 6.2.Major characteristics 177 6.3.Solution to exercises from Chapter 6 230 Chapter 7.Present and Future Developments Regarding Lithium-ion Batteries 235 7.1.Improvement of the operation and safety of current technologies 236 7.2.Improvement of the intrinsic performances (energy, power) 244 7.3.New formats of batteries 252 7.4.Conclusion 255 Chapter 8. Lithium-Metal Polymer Batteries 257 8.1.Principle of operation 258 8.2.Manufacturing process 260 8.3.Main characteristics 261 Chapter 9.Lithium-Sulfur Batteries 263 9.1.Introduction 263 9.2.The element Sulfur 264 9.3.Principle of operation 264 9.4.Discharge curve 269 9.5.Advantages to Li-S 270 9.6.Limitations and disadvantages of a Li-S battery 271 9.7.Conclusion 285 Chapter 10.Lithium-Air Batteries 287 10.1.Introduction 287 10.2.Operational principle 289 10.3.Electrolytes 295 10.4.Main limitations 297 10.5.Main actors 304 10.6.Conclusion 306 10.7.Appendix: calculation of theoretical gravimetric energy densities 307 Chapter 11.Lithium Resources 309 11.1.State of the art in terms of availability of lithium resources 310 11.2.Comparison of resources with the needs of the electrical industry 312 11.3.State of the art of extraction techniques and known production reserves 315 11.4.Nature and geological origin of all potential lithium resources 318 11.5.Global geographic distribution of raw lithium resources 320 11.6.Evolution of the cost of lithium 323 11.7.Summary 325 PART 3.OTHER TYPES OF BATTERIES 327 Chapter 12.Other Types of Batteries 329 12.1.Introduction 329 12.2.Sodium Sulfur technology 330 12.3.Nickel chloride batteries 335 12.4.Conclusions about high-temperature batteries 340 12.5.Redox flow systems 340 Conclusion 351 Index 353