In the early twentieth century-not long after 1898, when the United States claimed the Philippines as an American colony-Filipinas/os became a vital part of the agricultural economy of California's fertile San Joaquin Delta. In downtown Stockton, they created Little Manila, a vibrant community of hotels, pool halls, dance halls, restaurants, grocery stores, churches, union halls, and barbershops. Little Manila was home to the largest community of Filipinas/os outside of the Philippines until the neighborhood was decimated by urban redevelopment in the 1960s. Narrating a history spanning much of the twentieth century, Dawn Bohulano Mabalon traces the growth of Stockton's Filipina/o American community, the birth and eventual destruction of Little Manila, and recent efforts to remember and preserve it.Mabalon draws on oral histories, newspapers, photographs, personal archives, and her own family's history in Stockton. She reveals how Filipina/o immigrants created a community and ethnic culture shaped by their identities as colonial subjects of the United States, their racialization in Stockton as brown people, and their collective experiences in the fields and in the Little Manila neighborhood. In the process, Mabalon places Filipinas/os at the center of the development of California agriculture and the urban West.
Dawn Bohulano Mabalon is Associate Professor of History at San Francisco State University.
Illustrations ix Acknowledgments xi Introduction. Remembering Little Manila 1 Part I. Putting Down Roots: 1898-1940s 23 1. From the Provinces to the Delta: Life on the Eve of Emigration to the United States 25 2. Toiling in the "Valley of Opportunity" 61 3. Making a Filipina/o American World in Stockton 101 Part II. Growing a Community: 1930s-1960s 149 4. Women, Families, and the Second Generation 151 5. Searching for Spiritual Sustenance 192 6. The Watershed of World War II 217 Part III. Destruction and Displacement: 1950s-2010 267 7. Losing El Dorado Street 269 8. Building a Filipina/o American Movement in Stockton 299 Epilogue. Coming Home to Little Manila 335 Notes 351 Bibliography 403 Index 423