Written by an architect with Duany Plater-Zyberk with expertise in design for an aging society, this is a guide to urban planning and urban design solutions to accommodate the needs of a population aging in place in both existing and new communities of various scales. Complete with case studies of successful communities, the book shows how, through (social, economic, transportation, and public health) policy, land use, and urban design decisions, a community can allow for residents to age in place gracefully.
M. Scott Ball is an Atlanta-based architect and senior project manager for Duany Plater-Zyberk & Company (DPZ). He was previously involved in numerous hurricane recovery housing efforts and the creation of Louisiana's The Road Home and Mississippi Home Again programs. Ball was also co-executive director of the Community Housing Resource Center in Atlanta and served as president of the Association for Community Design, a national network of community design associations.
FOREWORD, Andres Duany xi INTRODUCTION, Robert Jenkens xiii PREFACE xiv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xviii PART I CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES 1 1 THE LONGEVITY CHALLENGE TO URBANISM 3 The Challenge 3 The Scale of Response: Pedestrian Sheds and Neighborhoods 7 Seniors Housing Communities as Change Agents 11 Toward the Development of Lifelong Neighborhoods 14 Conclusions 18 2 ACCESS AND URBANISM 21 Introduction 21 Go Forth Boldly 22 On Whose Behalf We Regulate 24 Advancing Accessibility Aspirations Beyond Minimum Standards 31 Stewardship 38 3 HEALTH, HEALTHCARE, AND URBANISM 45 Environmental Health, Safety, and Welfare 45 Reestablishing a Healthy Land-Use Paradigm 48 Knowledge and Action: Finding an Institutional Basis for Public Health and Land-Use Planning Integration 50 Beyond Intent and Toxicity: Establishing Frameworks for Planning Action 54 Beyond Planning: Healthy Environment Implementation Frameworks 64 4 NEIGHBORHOOD WELLNESS AND RECREATION 71 Urban Design and Wellness Industry Market Research 71 Aging and Wellness 73 Redefining the Lifelong Environment: Wellness in Community 77 Conclusion 86 PART II NETWORKS AND DIVERSITY 87 5 CONNECTIONS 89 Connectivity 91 Pedestrian Access and Transit 103 6 DIVERSITY 109 Planning for Diversity 109 Zoning for Diversity 111 Building Codes and Housing Diversity 121 PART III SENIORS HOUSING 125 7 EVOLUTION OF SENIOR DEVELOPMENT TYPES 129 Early Senior Care Models 129 Institutional Neglect 133 Diversification of the Senior Housing Type 134 8 THE LIFELONG NEIGHBORHOOD MARKET 149 Market Study Elements of Critical Importance to Lifelong Neighborhoods 149 Factors That Contribute to Residency in Age-Restricted Communities 156 Factors That Deter Older Adults from Moving to Age-Restricted Communities 164 Lifelong Neighborhoods and Influencing Factors 167 9 SENIORS HOUSING COMPONENTS 171 Initiating Lifelong Neighborhood Design with a Market Study 172 Seniors Housing Components 174 Service Policy Components 198 Built-Environment Policy Components 199 PART IV URBAN TO RURAL CASE STUDIES 207 10 PENN SOUTH NORC CASE STUDY OF AGING A DENSE URBAN CORE 209 Lifelong Summary 209 Context 210 Innovations in Health and Wellness Programming: Penn South Discovers the NORC Concept 212 Connectivity and Access 214 Dwellings and Retail 216 Health and Wellness 218 Community Building Spaces 219 Jeff Dullea Intergenerational Garden 220 11 BEACON HILL CASE STUDY OF AGING AND TOWN CENTERS 223 Lifelong Summary 223 Context 224 Innovations in Health and Wellness Programming 225 Connectivity and Access 226 Dwellings and Retail 227 Health and Wellness 230 Community Building Spaces 232 12 MABLETON CASE STUDY OF AGING AND NEIGHBORHOOD CENTER 235 Lifelong Summary 235 Overview 237 Context 238 Redeveloping as a Lifelong Community 239 Mableton Elementary School Redeveloped as a Civic Center 253 13 ELDER-CENTRIC VILLAGES: EXPLORING HOW SENIOR HOUSING CAN INCENTIVIZE URBAN RENEWAL IN RURAL AMERICA 257 Lifelong Summary 257 Evaluating Small-Town Living and Walkability 259 Providing an Elder-Centric Village 263 INDEX 267