The excavations led by Margaret and Tom Jones on the Thames gravel terraces at Mucking, Essex, undertaken between 1965 and 1978 are legendary. The largest area excavation ever undertaken in the British Isles, involving around 5000 participants, recorded around 44,000 archaeological features dating from the Beaker to Anglo-Saxon periods and recovered something in the region of 1.7 million finds of Mesolithic to post-medieval date. While various publications have emerged over the intervening years, the death of both directors, insufficient funding, many organisational complications and the sheer volume of material evidence have severely delayed full publication of this extraordinary palimpsest landscape.
Lives in Land is the first of two major volumes which bring together all the evidence from Mucking, presenting both the detail of many important structures and assemblages and a comprehensive synthesis of landscape development through the ages: settlement histories, changing land-use, death and burial, industry and craft activities. The long time-gap since completion of the excavations has allowed the authors the unprecedented opportunity to stand back from the density of site data and place the vast sum of Mucking evidence in the wider context of the archaeology of southern England throughout the major periods of occupation and activity.
Lives in Land begins with a thorough evaluation of the methods, philosophy and archival status of the Mucking project against the organisational and funding background of its time, and discusses its fascinating and complex history through a period of fundamental change in archaeological practice, legislation, finance, research priorities and theoretical paradigms in British Archaeology. Subsequent chapters deal with the prehistoric landscape, each focusing on the major themes that emerge by major period from analysis and synthesis of the data. The authors draw on archival material including site notebooks and personal accounts from key participants to provide a detailed but lively account of this iconic landscape investigation.
Christopher Evans is executive Director of the Cambridge Archaeological unit based in the Department of Archaeology, University of Cambridge. He has worked in British Archaeology at a senior level for more than twenty-five years, specialising in British prehistory, and archaeological theory with extensive experience in he management of complex excavation and post-excavation programmes. Grahame Appleby is a Senior Research Officer at the Cambridge Archaeological Unit with special responsibilities for post-excavation analysis and publication. His research specialisation is in prehistoric and Roman metalwork. Sam Lucy is in charge of post-excavation and publication at the Cambridge Archaeological Unit. Her research interests are mainly in Anglo-Saxon material culture and funerary archaeology.
Project Context - Acknowledgements ix Summary xi Resume xii Zusammenfassung xiii Chapter One: Introduction - Landscape and Archival Palimpsests 1 Total Archaeology 2 Framing Context 10 Notebook Archaeology 14 Project Framing (I) - Thinking Graphically (Mucking's `Phase-wall') 27 Archive as Palimpsest 32 Chapter Two: Scattered Usage and First All otment - Mesolithic to Middle Bronze Age 45 Mucking and the Palaeogeography of the Thames Estuary Peter Murphy 48 Tracings - Mesolithic to Early Bronze Age Activity 50 The Worked Flint Elizabeth Healey 52 Mesolithic/Earlier Neolithic 66 Pottery Ian Kinnes and Mark Birley 70 Grooved Ware 70 Pottery Mark Birley 71 Mucking's Grooved Ware Revisited Mark Knight 77 Worked Flint Elizabeth Healey 78 Beaker 79 Graves 79 Other Features 82 Pottery Alex Gibson 83 Worked Flint Elizabeth Healey 88 Earlier/Middle Bronze Age 88 Barrows 88 The Fieldsystem 99 Settlement and Other Features 104 Pottery Nigel Brown 105 Recollections (I) - Fieldwork 110 Discussion 119 Chapter Three: The Rings - Late Bronze Age Late Bronze Age Pottery Groups Matt Brudenell 129 The North Field Settlement 133 Clay pits 133 Pink pits 133 The South Rings (with John Ette) 142 Distributions 157 Material Culture 158 Flint Elizabeth Healey 158 Late Bronze Age Pottery Matt Brudenell 158 Metalwork and Metalworking 187 Metalwork (Ben Roberts) 188 Bronze Casting at Mucking: The Refractory Evidence (Margaret Jones and Hilary Howard) 190 Miscellaneous Small Finds 193 Fired Clay Paul Barford 194 Quernstones David Buckley and Hilary Major 197 Economic and Other Data 200 Animal Bone Geraldene Done 200 Fired Clay Sources Paul Barford, with Ailsa Mainman 203 Appreciation: Margaret Jones - A Legacy of Formidable Field Women Anwen Cooper and Julia Roberts 204 Discussion 208 Baseline Matters - Dating and Economy 208 Layout, Deposition and Status 211 Ringwork Communities and `Monumental Resonance' 21 Chapter Four: Compounding Spaces and Connected Communities - Iron Age (I) 219 Early Iron Age 227 Pottery Matthew Brudenell 233 The Structures 240 Roundhouses 242 Rectangular Posthole Structures 270 Rectangular Post-Hole Settings (Margaret Jones, with a contribution by Paul Barford) 270 `Posters' and Others 273 Enclosures 277 The ABC Enclosures 280 RBI and Adjacent Settlement 284 The North Enclosure and Northern Boundary System 291 The 1100 Enclosure (Prehistoric Cemetery II and other Western-margin Interments) 303 The Belgic Banjo Complex (and Prehistoric Cemetery III) 311 Recollections (II) - Post-Excavation and Aftermath 329 The Plaza, Other Parts and Landscape Development 336 The Plaza (and Prehistoric Cemetery IV) 336 Other Components 349 Cemetery V 352 The Conquest Period and Early Roman Landscape 355 Chapter Five: Specialist Studies and Summation of Parts - Iron Age (II) 365 Material Culture 365 Middle Iron Age Pottery Matt Brudenell 365 Late Iron Age Pottery - An Overview Isobel Thompson 394 Iron Age Coins Colin Haselgrove 401 Brooches Colin Haselgrove 402 Other Metalwork 412 Copper Alloy (Grahame Appleby) 412 Ironwork (Quita Mould) 416 Metalworking Evidence 417 Crucibles, Moulds and Tuyeres (David Dungworth and Justine Bayley) 417 Bronze Casting: Refractory Evidence (Hilary Howard) 424 Quernstones 424 Loomweights and Spindlewhorls Paul Barford 425 Other Fired Clay 427 Tournettes (Paul Barford) 429 Economic and Environmental Data 431 Fauna Remains Vida Rajkovaca 432 Pollen James Greig 436 Project Framing (II) - Charting Influence (and Difference) 436 `Style in Landscape' - Distributional Case-studies 438 `Type' Metalwork - Coins and Brooches 439 La Tene Wares and Marked Bases 441 Late Iron Age Assemblages - `Belgic' and Conquest Period Wares 446 Discussion - Connected Communities 454 Enclosure Models and `Logics' 454 Landscape Divides and the Lie of Land 457 Settlement Resourcing and Status 460 Later Iron Age Ceremonial/Household Architectures and Funerary Practices 465 Chapter Six: Patterned Ground/Interim Knowledges - Sequence Revisited and Retrospect 477 The Recommendation of Land 479 Sequence Revisited and Settlement `Scaling' 482 Mucking and the Prehistory of the Lower Thames Timothy Champion 482 Romano-British 487 Anglo-Saxon 489 Medieval and Post-Medieval 493 The South Essex Marshes in the Medieval and post-Medieval Periods (Stephen Rippon) 496 Gauging Settlement - Comparative Context 505 Different Lives - Continuities, Territories and Power 513 Project Framing (III) - Thinking Archives 526 Hindsights - Marking Time 530 Bibliography 535 Index 553