Living with Florida's Atlantic Beaches: Coastal Hazards from Amelia Island to Key West (Living with the Shore)By: Norma Longo (author), David M. Bush (author), William J. Neal (author), John D. Congleton (author), Luciana S. Esteves (author), Orrin H. Pilkey (author), Kenyon C. Lindeman (author), Deborah F. Pilkey (author)Hardback
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DescriptionFrom Amelia Island just south of Georgia to Key West's southern tip, beaches are one of Florida's greatest assets. Yet these beaches are in danger: rapid structural development on a highly erodible coast make them vulnerable to some of nature's greatest storms. The same development that has been driven by the attraction of beautiful beaches and coastal amenities now threatens those very resources. In turn, coastal structures are at risk from sea-level rise, shoreline retreat, winter storms, and hurricanes. Most of the methods for reducing losses associated with storms protect property only in the short term-at a growing cost in dollars and loss of natural habitat in the long term. Living with Florida's Atlantic Beaches is a guide to mitigating or reducing losses of property, human life, and natural resources by living with, rather than just at, the shore. This illustrated volume provides an introduction to coastal processes and geology as well as a brief history of coastal hazards and short-sighted human responses. This is the first volume in the Living with the Shore series to discuss the significant long-term impact of dredge-and-fill beach construction on living marine resources. Guidance is provided for long-term risk reduction in the form of tips on storm-resistant construction and site evaluation; maps for evaluating relative vulnerability to hazards are also included. A brief review of coastal regulations will help property owners understand and navigate the various permit requirements for developing coastal property. Living with Florida's Atlantic Beaches is an invaluable source of information for everyone from the curious beach visitor to the community planner, from the prudent property investor to the decision-making public official.
About AuthorDavid M. Bush is an associate professor in the Department of Geosciences at the State University of West Georgia in Carrollton, Georgia. William J. Neal is a professor in the Department of Geology at Grand Valley State University in Allendale, Michigan. Norma J. Longo is a geologist in Durham, North Carolina. Kenyon C. Lindeman, a biologist, is a senior scientist with Environmental Defense in Miami, Florida. Deborah F. Pilkey is an engineer in Simi Valley, California. Luciana Slomp Esteves is a coastal geologist at the Laboratory of Oceanographic Geology at Fundacao University in Rio Grande, Brazil.
ContentsList of Figures, Tables, and Risk Maps xi Preface xvii 1 From Fort Clinch to Fort Taylor: East Florida's Dynamic Coast 1 Coastal Images 3 Geology: The Basis of Environment 4 Coastal Landforms 14 Coastal Processes and the Importance of Sand 14 Climate: A Fundamental Component of Environment 16 Prehistoric Life: Early Humans 18 Access: The Key to Development 19 Lighthouse Lessons 21 Population Explosion in the Coastal Zone 24 Prospects of the Future 27 2 The Vulnerable Coast: Living With Storms 28 Hurricanes 33 Hurricane Probability 35 Ranking Hurricane Intensities 38 Hurricane History: A Stormy Past 39 Early Hurricanes 40 Recent Hurricanes 41 Winter Storms 43 Other Storm Related Hazards 44 Coastal Storm Processes 44 Natural Processes: Energy in Motion 45 Wind 45 Storm Waves 45 Currents 45 Storm Surge 45 Storm-Surge Ebb 47 Human Coastal Modifications: Altering the Response to Natural Processes 47 3 The Variable Coast: Beaches, Barrier Islands, and Coastal Processes 49 The Significance of Barrier Islands in Hazard Evaluation 51 Barrier Island Evolution 53 Stationary or Grounded Barrier Islands 55 Rolling Sandbars: How Islands Migrate 56 The Role of Shoreface in Barrier Island Evolution 59 Geologic Framework of the Coast: Know Your Shoreface 59 Beaches: Nature's Shock Absorbers 61 How Does the Beach Responds to a Storm? 61 How Does the Beach Widen? 62 Where Does Beach Sand Come From? 65 Why Are Our Shorelines Retreating? 65 If Most Shorelines Are Eroding, What is the Long-Range Future of Beach Development? 65 4 The Fortified Coast: Living With Coastal Engineering 67 Shoreline Armoring: Engineering Structures 68 Shore-Parallel Structures on Land: The Seawall Family 69 Impacts of Seawalls 73 Passive Beach Loss 73 Active Beach Loss 73 Placement Beach Loss 73 Seawalls, Sediment Loss, and Narrowing Beaches 73 Shore-Parallel Structures Offshore: Breakwaters 76 Shore-Perpindicular Structures: Groins and Jetties 77 Impacts on Groins 77 Engineering Structures: A Final Word 80 Coastal Armoring Policy 81 "Alternative" Devices 83 Redistributing Sediment: Dredging/Filing, Trucking, Scraping, and Bypassing 86 Beach Dredge-and-Fill Projects 86 Trucking Sand 92 Beach Scraping 92 Sand Transfer Plants 95 Dune Building 95 Plugging Dune Gaps 95 Principles of Sand Fencing and Artificial Plantings 96 Relocation: Managed Retreat 97 Are Variances Eroding Beach Protection Efforts? 98 Truths of the Shoreline 98 5 Environmental Effects of Beach Management 100 The Shelf Settling 100 How Marine Animals Can Be Affected by Engineering Projects 102 Beach Engineering Methods and Environmental Effects 104 Large Dredge-and-Fill Projects 105 Engineering Methods 105 Historical Perspectives on Beach Dredge and Fill 106 Environmental Effects 107 Mid-Shelf Areas (35-60 Feet) 107 Intermediate Shelf Areas (12-35 Feet) 108 Nearshore and Onshore Areas (0-12 Feet) 109 Inlet Channel Maintenance 110 Nearshore Berms 110 Importing Aragonite Sand 111 Sand Transfer Plants 112 Comparative Environmental Effects of Beach Engineering Methods 113 The Chronic Absence of Cumulative Impact Assessments 114 Natural Stressors 114 Historical Reef Burials 115 Mitigation and Artificial Reefs 116 Just The Facts 117 The Scale of Past and Future Dredge-and-Fill Projects 118 Current Understanding of Faunas and Impacts of Beach Engineering 118 6 The Rules of the Coast: Assessing Hazards 120 The Flexible Coast 121 Selecting Your Coastal Site 124 Stability Indicators: Reading Nature's Record at the Coast 127 Terrain and Elevation 127 Vegetation 127 Seashells 130 Soil Profiles 130 Coastal Environments: Your Site in the Bigger Coastal Picture 131 Primary Dunes 131 Dune Fields 132 Overwash Fans 133 Grasslands 133 Inlets 134 The Infrastructure Coast: Water Resources, Services, and Utilities 134 Finger Canals 135 Site Evaluation Checklist: Vulnerability and Risk Potential Escape Routes: Have an Emergency Plan 138 Know the Escape Route Ahead of Time 138 Use the Route Early 139 7 The Nitty-Gritty Coast: Evaluating Your Coastal Site 140 Nassau County 142 Duval County 147 St. Johns County 153 Flagler County 164 Volusia County 169 Brevard County 177 Indian River County 189 St. Lucie County 193 Martin County 199 Palm Beach County 205 Broward County 215 Dade County 222 Miami Beach: The Endpoint 232 Monroe County/Florida Keys 232 The Environment 235 Look What They've Done to Our Keys! 237 The Storm Threat 241 The Next Step 247 8 The Built Coast: Construction Guidelines 249 Can We Learn from Past Experience? 249 Coastal Realty versus Coastal Reality 249 The Structure: Concept of Balanced Risk 250 Can We Rely on Building Codes? 251 Coastal Forces: Desing Requirements 251 Lessons from Previous Storms 253 The National Flood Insurance Program 255 Construction Type 255 House Selection 255 Strengthening the Exterior Envelope 256 Doors 257 Windows 257 Structural Integrity 257 Building Shape 257 Roofs 258 Connectivity, High-Wind Straps, and Tie-Downs 262 Keeping Dry: Pole or "Stilt" Houses 263 Piling Embedment 265 Connection of Piling to the Floor and Roof 267 Breakaway Walls below Elevated Buildings 267 Concrete Slabs below Elevated Buildings 267 Utility Systems 267 Dry Flood-Proofing 268 An Existing House: What to Look for, Where to Improve
- publication date: 07/06/2004
- ISBN13: 9780822332510
- Format: Hardback
- Number Of Pages: 360
- ID: 9780822332510
- ISBN10: 0822332515
- Saver Delivery: Yes
- 1st Class Delivery: Yes
- Courier Delivery: Yes
- Store Delivery: Yes