The book deals with lock-in thermography as a special variant of the well known IR thermography for all applications where the heat of the sample can be pulsed. Compared to steady-state thermography, the lock-in mode enables a much improved signal/noise ratio (up to 1000x) by signal averaging, a far better lateral resolution, and it may provide inherent emissivity correction. Thus, it replaces thermal failure analysis previously carried out by using conventional IR microscopy, liquid crystal imaging, or fluorescent microthermal imaging. Various experimental approaches to lock-in thermography are reviewed with special emphasis on the systems developed by the authors themselves. Thus, the book provides a useful introduction to this technique and a helpful guide for scientists and engineers working in electronic device failure analysis. It concludes with a detailed theoretical treatment of the propagation of thermal waves, which is presented as a basis for various applications, e.g., integrated circuits, MOS structures, solar cells and solar modules.
Otwin Breitenstein studied physics at Leipzig university and graduated there in 1980. After dealing with spatially resolved capacitance spectroscopy of point defects (Scanning-DLTS) at the Institute of Solid State Physics and Electron Microscopy in Halle until 1992, he is a scientific staff member at Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Halle. His main interest field is electronic device and materials analysis by electron microscopic and IR-based methods. Wilhelm Warta studied Physics at Wurzburg and then Stuttgart University, where he graduated and received his PhD with research on charge transport properties of organic molecular crystals. 1985 he joined Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems in Freiburg starting with work on carrier lifetime measurement techniques for semiconductor materials. His fields are the development of measurement techniques for solar cell development, characterization of solar cell material and solar cells, device and process simulation as well as high precision calibration of solar cells.
Introduction.- Physical and Technical Basics.- Experimental Technique.- Theory.- Measurement Strategies.- Typical Applications.- Summary and Outlook.- References.- Appendices.- Index.
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