LTE, LTE-advanced and WiMax: Towards IMT-advanced Networks

LTE, LTE-advanced and WiMax: Towards IMT-advanced Networks

By: Najah Abu Ali (author), Abd-Elhamid M. Taha (author), Hossam S. Hassanein (author)

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Description

A concise introduction to IMT-Advanced Systems, including LTE-Advanced and WiMAX There exists a strong demand for fully extending emerging Internet services, including collaborative applications and social networking, to the mobile and wireless domain. Delivering such services can be possible only through realizing broadband in the wireless. Two candidate technologies are currently competing in fulfilling the requirements for wireless broadband networks, WiMAX and LTE. At the moment, LTE and its future evolution LTE-Advanced are already gaining ground in terms of vendor and operator support. Whilst both technologies share certain attributes (utilizing Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) in downlink, accommodating smart antennas and full support for IP-switching, for example), they differ in others (including uplink technology, scheduling, frame structure and mobility support). Beyond technological merits, factors such as deployment readiness, ecosystem maturity and migration feasibility come to light when comparing the aptitude of the two technologies. LTE, LTE-Advanced and WiMAX: Towards IMT-Advanced Networks provides a concise, no-nonsense introduction to the two technologies, covering both interface and networking considerations. More critically, the book gives a multi-faceted comparison, carefully analyzing and distinguishing the characteristics of each technology and spanning both technical and economic merits. A "big picture" understanding of the market strategies and forecasts is also offered. Discusses and critically evaluates LTE, LTE-Advanced and WiMAX (Legacy and Advanced) Gives an overview of the principles and advances of each enabling technology Offers a feature-by-feature comparison between the candidate technologies Includes information which appeals to both industry practitioners and academics Provides an up-to-date report on market and industry status

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About Author

Najah Abu Ali Najah Abu Ali works extensively on broadband wireless network architectures, design, QoS provisioning and performance, and has published and lectured in the area of analytical and measurement based network performance management, in addition to QoS and resource management in both single and multihop wireless networks. She is currently an Associate Professor in the Computer Networks Engineering Track at the College of Information Technology in the United Arab Emirates University (Al-Ain, UAE). Her previous posts include a postdoctoral fellow at the Telecommunications Research Lab at Queen's, and an instructor and head of the engineering department at Queen Noor College. She received her B.S. and M.S. degrees in Electrical Engineering in 1989 and 1995 respectively from University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan and her PhD degree in 2006 in Computer Networks in Electrical Engineering department at Queen's University, Kingston, Canada. Abd-Elhamid M. Taha Abd-Elhamid M. Taha is a research associate at the Telecommunications Research Lab of the School of Computing at Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario. He received the B.Sc. (honors) and the M.Sc. from Kuwait University in 1999 and 2002, and the Ph.D. from Queen's University in 2007. Dr. Taha has worked extensively in the area of broadband wireless networks, especially in the contexts of radio resource management, mixed-technology access networks and extended wireless infrastructure. He has also lectured on emerging broadband technologies (LTE, LTE-Advanced and WiMax) in key IEEE venues such as Globecom and VTC. Hossam S. Hassanein Hossam Hassanein is with the School of Computing at Queen's University working in the areas of broadband, wireless and variable topology networks architecture, protocols, control and performance evaluation. Dr. Hassanein obtained his PhD in Computing Science from the University of Alberta in 1990. He is the founder and director of the Telecommunication Research (TR) Lab (http://www.cs.queensu.ca/~trl) in the School of Computing at Queen's. Dr. Hassanein has more than 350 publications in reputable journals, conferences and workshops in the areas of computer networks and performance evaluation. He has delivered several invited talks and tutorials at key international venues, including Unconventional Computing 2007, IEEE ICC 2008, IEEE CCNC 2009, IEEE GCC 2009, IEEE GIIS 2009, ASM MSWIM 2009 and IEEE Globecom 2009. Serving on the editorial board of a number of International Journals, Dr. Hassanein is also a senior member of the IEEE and is currently chair of the IEEE Communication Society Technical Committee on Ad hoc and Sensor Networks (TC AHSN). Dr. Hassanein is an IEEE Communications Society Distinguished Lecturer.

Contents

About the Authors xv Preface xvii Acknowledgements xix List of Abbreviations xxi 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Evolution of Wireless Networks 3 1.2 Why IMT-Advanced 5 1.3 The ITU-R Requirements for IMT-Advanced Networks 6 1.3.1 Cell Spectral Efficiency 10 1.3.2 Peak Spectral Efficiency 10 1.3.3 Bandwidth 10 1.3.4 Cell Edge User Spectral Efficiency 10 1.3.5 Latency 10 1.3.6 Rates per Mobility Class 11 1.3.7 Handover Interruption Time 11 1.3.8 VoIP Capacity 12 1.3.9 Spectrum 13 1.4 IMT-Advanced Networks 13 1.4.1 LTE-Advanced 13 1.4.2 IEEE 802.16m 14 1.5 Book Overview 15 References 16 2 Enabling Technologies for IMT-Advanced Networks 19 2.1 Multicarrier Modulation and Multiple Access 20 2.1.1 OFDM 20 2.1.2 OFDMA 22 2.1.3 SC-FDMA 22 2.2 Multiuser Diversity and Scheduling 23 2.3 Adaptive Coding and Modulation 23 2.4 Frequency Reuse 24 2.5 Wideband Transmissions 25 2.6 Multiple Antenna Techniques 27 2.7 Relaying 29 2.8 Femtocells 30 2.9 Coordinated Multi-Point (CoMP) Transmission 33 2.9.1 Interference Cancellation 34 2.9.2 Single Point Feedback/Single Point Reception 35 2.9.3 Multichannel Feedback/Single Point Reception 35 2.9.4 Multichannel Feedback/Multipoint Reception 35 2.9.5 Inter-Cell MIMO 35 2.10 Power Management 36 2.11 Inter-Technology Handovers 36 References 37 Part I WIMAX 39 3 WiMAX Networks 41 3.1 IEEE 802.16-2009 41 3.1.1 IEEE 802.16-2009 Air Interfaces 43 3.1.2 Protocol Reference Model 44 3.2 IEEE 802.16m 45 3.2.1 IEEE 802.16m Air Interface 48 3.2.2 System Reference Model 48 3.3 Summary of Functionalities 48 3.3.1 Frame Structure 48 3.3.2 Network Entry 50 3.3.3 QoS and Bandwidth Reservation 51 3.3.4 Mobility Management 53 3.3.5 Security 56 4 Frame Structure, Addressing and Identification 59 4.1 Frame Structure in IEEE 802.16-2009 59 4.1.1 TDD Frame Structure 60 4.1.2 FDD/HD-FDD Frame Structure 62 4.2 Frame Structure in IEEE 802.16j 62 4.2.1 Frame Structure in Transparent Relaying 63 4.2.2 Frame Structure in Non-Transparent Relaying 65 4.3 Frame Structure in IEEE 802.16m 69 4.3.1 Basic Frame Structure 69 4.3.2 Frame Structure Supporting IEEE 802.16-2009 Frames 70 4.4 Addressing and Connections Identification 71 4.4.1 Logical identifiers in IEEE 802.16-2009 71 4.4.2 Logical identifiers in IEEE 802.16j-2009 72 4.4.3 Logical identifiers in IEEE 802.16m 73 5 Network Entry, Initialization and Ranging 75 5.1 Network Entry in IEEE 802.16-2009 75 5.1.1 Initial Ranging 77 5.1.2 Periodic Ranging 78 5.1.3 Periodic Ranging in OFDM 79 5.1.4 Periodic Ranging in OFDMA 79 5.2 Network Entry in IEEE 802.16j-2009 80 5.2.1 Initial Ranging 82 5.2.2 Periodic Ranging 83 5.3 Network Entry in IEEE 802.16m 84 6 Quality of Service and Bandwidth Reservation 87 6.1 QoS in IEEE 802.16-2009 88 6.1.1 QoS Performance Measures 88 6.1.2 Classification 89 6.1.3 Signaling Bandwidth Requests and Grants 93 6.1.4 Bandwidth Allocation and Traffic Handling 97 6.2 Quality of Service in IEEE 802.16j 99 6.2.1 Classification 99 6.2.2 Signaling Bandwidth Requests and Grants 99 6.2.3 Bandwidth Allocation and Traffic Handling 103 6.3 QoS in IEEE 802.16m 104 6.3.1 QoS Parameters 104 6.3.2 Classification 104 6.3.3 Bandwidth Request and Grant 104 6.3.4 Bandwidth Allocation and Traffic Handling 105 7 Mobility Management 107 7.1 Mobility Management in IEEE 802.16-2009 107 7.1.1 Acquiring Network Topology 109 7.1.2 Association Procedures 109 7.1.3 The Handover Process 110 7.1.4 Optional Handover Modes 112 7.2 Mobility Management in IEEE 802.16j-2009 114 7.2.1 MR-BS and RS Behavior during MS Handover 114 7.2.2 Mobile RS Handover 115 7.3 Mobility Management in IEEE 802.16m 117 7.3.1 ABS to ABS Handovers 117 7.3.2 Mixed Handover Types 118 7.3.3 Inter-RAT Handovers 119 7.3.4 Handovers in Relay, Femtocells and Multicarrier IEEE 802.16m Networks 119 8 Security 121 8.1 Security in IEEE 802.16-2009 121 8.1.1 Security Associations 122 8.1.2 Authentication 122 8.1.3 Encryption 123 8.2 Security in IEEE 802.16j-2009 124 8.2.1 Security Zones 125 8.3 Security in IEEE 802.16m 125 Part II LTE AND LTE-ADVANCED NETWORKS 127 9 Overview of LTE and LTE-Advanced Networks 129 9.1 Overview of LTE Networks 129 9.1.1 The Radio Protocol Architecture 131 9.1.2 The Interfaces 132 9.1.3 Support for Home eNBs (Femtocells) 133 9.1.4 Air Interface 134 9.2 Overview of Part II 135 9.2.1 Frame Structure 135 9.2.2 UE States and State Transitions 136 9.2.3 Quality of Service and Bandwidth Reservation 137 9.2.4 Mobility Management 139 9.2.5 Security 142 References 145 10 Frame-Structure and Node Identification 147 10.1 Frame-Structure in LTE 147 10.1.1 Resource Block Structure 149 10.2 Frame-Structure in LTE-Advanced 151 10.3 LTE Identification, Naming and Addressing 151 10.3.1 Identification 152 10.3.2 Addressing 153 11 UE States and State Transitions 161 11.1 Overview of a UE's State Transitions 161 11.2 IDLE Processes 162 11.2.1 PLMN Selection 162 11.2.2 Cell Selection and Reselection 163 11.2.3 Location Registration 164 11.2.4 Support for Manual CSG ID Selection 164 11.3 Acquiring System Information 164 11.4 Connection Establishment and Control 165 11.4.1 Random Access Procedure 165 11.4.2 Connection Establishment 167 11.4.3 Connection Reconfiguration 168 11.4.4 Connection Re-establishment 169 11.4.5 Connection Release 169 11.4.6 Leaving the RRC-CONNECTED State 170 11.5 Mapping between AS and NAS States 170 12 Quality of Service and Bandwidth Reservation 173 12.1 QoS Performance Measures 173 12.2 Classification 174 12.3 Signaling for Bandwidth Requests and Grants 175 12.3.1 Dedicated Bearer 176 12.3.2 Default Bearer 179 12.4 Bandwidth Allocation and Traffic Handling 180 12.4.1 Scheduling 180 12.4.2 Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request 182 12.5 QoS in LTE-Advanced 184 12.5.1 Carrier Aggregation 184 12.5.2 Coordinated Multipoint Transmission/Reception (CoMP) 184 12.5.3 Relaying in LTE-Advanced 185 13 Mobility Management 189 13.1 Overview 189 13.2 Drivers and Limitations for Mobility Control 190 13.3 Mobility Management and UE States 192 13.3.1 IDLE State Mobility Management 192 13.3.2 CONNECTED State Mobility Management 193 13.4 Considerations for Inter RAT Mobility 195 13.4.1 Cell Reselection 196 13.4.2 Handover 196 13.5 CSG and Hybrid HeNB Cells 196 13.6 Mobility Management Signaling 198 13.6.1 X2 Mobility Management 198 13.6.2 S1 Mobility Management 201 14 Security 203 14.1 Design Rationale 203 14.2 LTE Security Architecture 204 14.3 EPS Key Hierarchy 206 14.4 State Transitions and Mobility 208 14.5 Procedures between UE and EPC Elements 209 14.5.1 EPS Authentication and Key Agreement (AKA) 209 14.5.2 Distribution of Authentication Data from HSS to Serving Network 210 14.5.3 User Identification by a Permanent Identity 210 Part III COMPARISON 211 15 A Requirements Comparison 213 15.1 Evolution of the IMT-Advanced Standards 213 15.2 Comparing Spectral Efficiency 216 15.2.1 OFDMA Implementation 216 15.2.2 MIMO Implementation 217 15.2.3 Spectrum Flexibility 219 15.3 Comparing Relay Adoption 222 15.4 Comparing Network Architectures 223 15.4.1 ASN/AN (E-UTRAN) and the MME and the S-GW 223 15.4.2 CSN/PDN-GW 225 16 Coexistence and Inter-Technology Handovers 227 16.1 Intersystem Interference 227 16.1.1 Types of Intersystem Interference 228 16.2 Inter-Technology Access 230 16.2.1 Approaches to Inter-Technology Mobility 230 16.2.2 Examples of Inter-Technology Access 231 References 235 17 Supporting Quality of Service 237 17.1 Scheduling in WiMAX 237 17.1.1 Homogeneous Algorithms 239 17.1.2 Hybrid Algorithms 240 17.1.3 Opportunistic Algorithms 241 17.2 Scheduling in LTE and LTE-Advanced 243 17.2.1 Scheduling the Uplink 243 17.2.2 Scheduling the Downlink 245 17.3 Quantitative Comparison between LTE and WiMAX 246 17.3.1 VoIP Scheduling in LTE and WiMAX 246 17.3.2 Power Consumption in LTE and WiMAX Base Stations 247 17.3.3 Comparing OFDMA and SC-FDMA 247 References 247 18 The Market View 251 18.1 Towards 4G Networks 252 18.2 IMT-Advanced Market Outlook 253 18.2.1 Spectrum Allocation 254 18.2.2 Small Cells 255 18.2.3 The WiFi Spread 255 18.2.4 The Backhaul Bottleneck 256 18.2.5 Readiness for 4G 256 18.3 The Road Ahead 257 References 257 19 The Road Ahead 259 19.1 Network Capacity 260 19.2 Access Heterogeneity 261 19.3 Cognitive Radio and Dynamic Spectrum 261 19.4 Network Intelligence 262 19.5 Access Network Architecture 263 19.6 Radio Resource Management 263 19.7 Green Wireless Access 265 References 266 Index 269

Product Details

  • publication date: 23/10/2011
  • ISBN13: 9781119970446
  • Number Of Pages: 304
  • ID: 9781119970446
  • weight: 666
  • ISBN10: 111997044X

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  • Saver Delivery: Yes
  • 1st Class Delivery: Yes
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