Wilfried Andra born in Weimar in 1923 received his physics PhD from the University of Jena in 1957. In 1969 he was appointed professor at the Deutsche Akademie der Wissenschaften in Berlin. His field of work was solid state magnetism (domains, thin films, information storage, high temperature superconductivity, micromagnetism). After his retirement his main interest moved to the application of magnetism in medicine. Wilfried Andra is author or co-author of more than 130 publications in international scientific journals and several review articles. Hannes Nowak was born in Weinsberg, Germany, in 1948. He received his physics PhD from the University of Wroclaw, Poland, in 1973 and finished his doctoral thesis in SQUID application at the University of Jena in 1980. He qualified as professor in 1989 and became a specialist in biomagnetism (SQUID and instrumentation, shielding, noise reduction, medical applications and magnetic source imaging). Hannes Nowak is the author or co-author of more than 50 refereed journal publications, 75 conference proceeding articles and more than 110 posters.
Preface. List of Contributors. 1 Introduction. 1.1 The History of Magnetism in Medicine (Urs Hafeli). 1.1.1 Origins. 1.1.2 First Medical Uses of Magnets. 1.1.3 Use of Attracting Forces of Magnets in Medicine. 1.1.4 Treatment of Nervous Diseases and Mesmerism. 1.1.5 Other Medical Uses of Magnets and Magnetism. 1.1.6 The In.uence of Magnetic Fields on Man. References. 1.2 Basic Physical Principles (Dmitri Berkov). 1.2.1 Introduction. 1.2.2 The Electromagnetic Field Concept and Maxwell Equations. 1.2.3 Magnetic Field in Condensed Matter: General Concepts. 1.2.4 Magnetic Field in Condensed Matter: Special Topics. Appendix. References. 1.3 Creating and Measuring Magnetic Fields (Wilfried Andra and Hannes Nowak). 1.3.1 Introduction. 1.3.2 The Generation of Magnetic Fields. 1.3.3 The Measurement of Magnetic Fields. 1.3.4 Discussion. References. 1.4 Safety Aspects of Magnetic Fields (Jurgen H. Bernhardt and Gunnar Brix). 1.4.1 Introduction. 1.4.2 Risk Evaluation and Guidance on Protection. 1.4.3 Static and Extremely Slowly Time-Varying Magnetic Fields. 1.4.4 Time-Varying Magnetic Fields. 1.4.5 Electromagnetic Fields. 1.4.6 Protection of Patients and Volunteers Undergoing MR Procedures. References. 2 Biomagnetism. 2.1 Introduction (Hannes Nowak). 2.2 Biomagnetic Instrumentation (Hannes Nowak). 2.2.1 History. 2.2.2 Biomagnetic Fields. 2.2.3 SQUID Sensor. 2.2.4 Shielding: Magnetically and Electrically Shielded Rooms. 2.2.5 Gradiometers. 2.2.6 Dewar/Cryostat. 2.2.7 Commercial Biomagnetic Measurement Devices. 2.2.8 Special Biomagnetic Measurement Devices. 2.2.9 High-Temperature Superconductivity. 2.2.10 Perspectives. References. 2.3 Cardiomagnetism (Gerhard Stroink, Birgit Hailer, and Peter Van Leeuwen). 2.3.1 Introduction. 2.3.2 Forward Solutions. 2.3.3 Inverse Solutions. 2.3.4 Validation. 2.3.5 Clinical Applications of Magnetocardiography. 2.3.6 Ischemic Heart Disease. 2.3.7 Hypertensive Cardiovascular Disease. 2.3.8 Cardiomyopathy. 2.3.9 Cardiac Arrhythmias. 2.3.10 Clinical Conclusions. References. 2.4 Neuromagnetism (Thomas R. Knosche, Nobukazu Nakasato, Michael Eiselt, and Jens Haueisen). 2.4.1 Introduction. 2.4.2 The Generation of Magnetic Signals by the Brain. 2.4.3 Analysis of Neuromagnetic Fields. 2.4.4 The Investigation of the Primary Sensory and Motor Systems. 2.4.5 Neuromagnetic Fields and Brain Science: Cognitive Functions. 2.4.6 Clinical Applications. References. 2.5 Fetal Magnetography (Uwe Schneider and Ekkehard Schleussner). 2.5.1 Fetal Magnetocardiography. 2.5.2 Fetal Magnetoencephalography. References. 3 Magnetic Resonance. 3.1 Introduction (Werner A. Kaiser). 3.2 Physical Principles and Technology of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (Arnulf Oppelt). 3.2.1 Historical Overview. 3.2.2 Basic Physical Principles of NMR. 3.2.3 The NMR Signal. 3.2.4 Nuclear Relaxation. 3.2.5 Signal-to-Noise Ratio. 3.2.6 Magnetic Resonance Imaging. 3.2.7 Selective Excitation. 3.2.8 Partial Acquisition Techniques. 3.2.9 Pulse Sequence and Contrast. 3.2.10 Imaging of Flow. 3.2.11 Di.usion Imaging. 3.2.12 MR Spectroscopy. 3.2.13 System Design Considerations. 3.2.14 Magnets. 3.2.15 Shimming. 3.2.16 Gradient System. 3.2.17 RF-System. 3.2.18 Conclusions. References. 3.3 Modern Applications of MRI in Medical Sciences. 3.3.1 New MRI Techniques for Cardiovascular Imaging (Debiao Li and Andrew C. Larson). 3.3.2 Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) (Oliver Speck, Axel Schreiber, Clemens Janz, and Ju rgen Hennig). 3.3.3 New MRI Techniques for the Detection of Acute Cerebral Ischemia (Michael E. Moseley, Roland Bammer, and Joachim Rother) 3.3.4 Clinical Applications at Ultrahigh Fields (Petra Schmalbrock and Donald W. Chakeres). 3.3.5 Interventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Concepts, Systems, and Applications (Cli.ord R. Weiss and Jonathan S. Lewin). 3.3.6 New Approaches in Diagnostic and Therapeutic MR Mammography (Werner A. Kaiser, Stefan O.R. P.eiderer, Karl-Heinz Herrmann, and Jurgen R. Reichenbach). 3.3.7 MR Spectroscopy (Peter Bachert). Conclusions and Perspectives. References. 4 Magnetic Substances and Externally Applied Fields. 4.1 Introduction (Wilfried Andra) 4.2 Magnetic Monitoring as a Diagnostic Method for Investigating Motility in the Human Digestive System (Hendryk Richert, Olaf Kosch, and Peter Gornert) 4.2.1 Introduction. 4.2.2 Conventional Investigation Methods of the Human GI Tract. 4.2.3 Magnetic Markers. 4.2.4 Magnetic Monitoring Systems. 4.2.5 Conclusion and Outlook. 4.3 Remote-Controlled Drug Delivery in the Gastrointestinal Tract (Wilfried Andra and Christoph Werner). 4.3.1 Introduction. 4.3.2 Physical Principles Used or Proposed for Remote Controlled Release. 4.3.3 Discussion and Outlook. 4.4 Magnetic Stimulation (Shoogo Ueno and Minoru Fujiki). 4.4.1 Introduction. 4.4.2 History. 4.4.3 Principle of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation. 4.4.4 Clinical and Preclinical Application of TMS. 4.5 Liver Iron Susceptometry (Roland Fischer and David E. Farrell). 4.5.1 Introduction. 4.5.2 Iron Metabolism and Iron Overload. 4.5.3 Technical Developments of Biomagnetic Liver Susceptometry. 4.5.4 Physical and Biochemical Basics. 4.5.5 Magnetostatic Principles. 4.5.6 Calibration and Validation. 4.5.7 Magnetic Background and Noise Problems. 4.5.8 Alternative Methods. 4.5.9 Medical Applications. 4.5.10 Summary and Outlook. References. 4.6 Magnetic Hyperthermia and Thermoablation (Rudolf Hergt and Wilfried Andra) 4.6.1 Introduction. 4.6.2 Physical Principles of Magnetic Particle Heating. 4.6.3 Physical-Technical Implementation of the Therapy. 4.6.4 Biomedical Status of Magnetic Particle Hyperthermia. 4.7 Magnetic Cell Separation for Research and Clinical Applications (Michael Apel, Uwe A.O. Heinlein, Stefan Miltenyi, Ju rgen Schmitz, and John D.M. Campbell). 4.7.1 Introduction. 4.7.2 MACS4 Technology. 4.7.3 Magnetic Cell Sorting for Clinical Applications. References. 4.8 Magnetic Drug Targeting (Christoph Alexiou and Roland Jurgons). 4.8.1 Background and History of Magnetic Drug Targeting. 4.8.2 Regional Chemotherapies for Cancer Treatment. 4.8.3 Current Applications of Magnetic Drug Targeting. 4.8.4 Outlook. References. 4.9 New Fields of Application (Wilfried Andra and Urs Hafeli). 4.9.1 Introduction. 4.9.2 Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI). 4.9.3 Magnetically Modulated Optical Nanoprobes. 4.9.4 Magnetic Guidance. References. 5 Conclusions and Perspectives (Jens Haueisen). Index.
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