Measurement Error and Research Design

Measurement Error and Research Design

By: Madhu Viswanathan (author)Paperback

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Most books on measurement present a statistical orientation or an orientation toward measurement theory. Although these approaches are valuable, Measurement Error and Research Design is motivated by the lack of literature that enhances understanding of measurement error, its sources, and its effects on responses. This book's purpose is to enhance the design of research, both of measures and of methods. Author Madhu Viswanathan's work is organized around the meaning of measurement error. It begins with a brief overview of measurement principles supplemented with many examples to provide necessary background to the reader. It analyzes the various causes of different types of measurement error, the nature of responses that would characterize each type of error, and the pattern of empirical outcomes that would be observed. This approach provides guidance in developing and editing items and measures and in designing methods before the fact. It is also perfect for using empirical results to redesign items, measures, and methods. Measurement is treated at a nuts-and-bolts level with concrete examples or errors and empirical procedures.

About Author

Madhu Viswanathan is an Associate Professor of Marketing in the Department of Business Administration within the College of Business at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois, where he has been on the faculty since 1990. He holds a Ph.D. in Business Administration (Marketing) from the University of Minnesota, and a Bachelor of Technology in Mechanical Engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology, Madras. He teaches a course on measurement and research methods to Ph.D.. students and marketing research to undergraduate and MBA students. He has been listed several times as an excellent instructor at the University of Illinois. His research has appeared in journals, including the Journal of Applied Psychology, the Journal of Consumer Psychology, the Journal of Marketing Research, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, and Computer, Speech, and Language. His research is in two areas: measurement and research methodology and low-literate buyer and seller behavior. His work on literacy has been supported by grants from the National Science Foundation, and the Illinois Center for International Business Education and Research. He serves on the editorial boards of the Journal of Consumer Psychology, the Journal of Consumer Research, and Psychology and Marketing. He has served as the Secretary-Treasurer for the Society for Consumer Psychology and as the Chair of the Consumer Behavior Special Interest Group of the American Marketing Association. He also chaired national conferences for the American Marketing Association and the Society for Consumer Psychology. He directs the Marketplace Literacy Project (, a nonprofit organization which aims to disseminate knowledge about low-literate buyer and seller behavior. Its activities include the development and distribution of educational materials for adult education, nutrition, and other programs targeted at low-literate consumers in the US, and development and provision of business and consumer literacy training for low-literate, low-income adults in India and other similar contexts. He lives in Champaign, Illinois, with his wife and 10-year old son.


Foreword - Richard Bagozzi Preface Acknowledgments 1. WHAT IS MEASUREMENT? Overview What Is Measurement Error? Overview of Traditional Measure Development Procedures Conceptual and Operational Definitions Domain Delineation Measure Design and Item Generation Internal Consistency Reliability Test-Retest Reliability Dimensionality - Exploratory Factor Analysis Dimensionality - Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Structural Equation Modeling Validity General Issues in Measurement Summary Appendices 2. WHAT IS MEASUREMENT ERROR? Overview Random Error Systematic Error Types of Random and Systematic Error Illustrations of Measurement Error Through Error Patterns Patterns of Responses in Measurement Error Summary Appendix 3. WHAT CAUSES MEASUREMENT ERROR? Overview Sources of Measurement Error Taxonomy of Error Sources Summary 4. CAN EMPIRICAL PROCEDURES PINPOINT TYPES OF MEASUREMENT ERROR? Overview Internal Consistency Reliability Procedures Test-Retest Reliability Procedures Factor Analysis Procedures Validity Tests Summary 5. HOW CAN MEASUREMENT ERROR BE IDENTIFIED AND CORRECTED FOR IN MEASURE DEVELOPMENT? Overview Guidelines for Identifying and Correcting For Error in Measure Development Generic Issues in Designing Psychometric Tests Item-to-Total Correlations (Internal Consistency Procedures) Item Means Test-Retest Correlations (Test-Retest Reliability) Factor Loadings (Exploratory Factor Analysis) Residuals (Confirmatory Factor Analysis) Cross-Construct Correlations (Validity Tests) Conditions of Future Use of Measures Discussion Summary 6. HOW CAN ERROR BE IDENTIFIED THROUGH INNOVATIVE DESIGN AND ANALYSES? Overview Using Internal Consistency and Test-Retest Reliability in Conjunction Using Correlations Across Item-Level Correlations Empirical Assessment of Item-Sequencing Effects Summary 7. HOW DO MEASURES DIFFER? Overview Stimulus-Centered Versus Respondent-Centered Scales Formative and Reflective Indicators of Constructs Summary 8. WHAT ARE EXAMPLES OF MEASURES AND MEASUREMENT ACROSS VARIOUS DISCIPLINES? Overview Types of Measures Types of Response Formats Specific Examples of Scales From Different Disciplines Cross-Cultural Measurement Summary 9. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS OF UNDERSTANDING MEASUREMENT ERROR FOR RESEARCH DESIGN AND ANALYSIS? Overview Implications for Using Measures in Research Design Implications for Using Structural Equation Modeling Implications for Applied Research Summary 10. HOW DOES MEASUREMENT ERROR AFFECT RESEARCH DESIGN? Overview Types of Research Designs Measurement Error in Survey Designs Measurement Error in Experimental Designs Research Design and Measurement Error Summary Appendices 11. WHAT IS THE ROLE OF MEASUREMENT IN SCIENCE? Overview Assumptions of Measurement Qualitative Versus Quantitative Research Measuring the "Measurable" From Physical to Psychological Measurement Informal Measurement Ethics in Measurement Summary 12. WHAT ARE THE KEY PRINCIPLES AND GUIDING ORIENTATIONS OF THIS BOOK? Overview Summary of Chapters Implications for Measurement and Research Design Summary of Orientations References Index About the Author

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9781412906425
  • Format: Paperback
  • Number Of Pages: 456
  • ID: 9781412906425
  • ISBN10: 1412906423

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