Government and nongovernmental human service organizations are under increasing pressure to demonstrate that their programs work. As stakeholders demand more accountability, human service organizations are increasingly utilizing performance accountability and performance measurement as a way of demonstrating the efficiency, quality, and effectiveness of their programs. Measuring the Performance of Human Service Programs, Second Edition examines the reasons why performance measurement has become the major method of performance accountability today. In this second edition of their classic work, Martin & Kettner explain in detail how to develop and utilize output, quality, and outcome performance measures in human service programs. Special attention is given to the four types of outcome performance measures: numeric counts, standardized measures, level of functioning (LOF) scales and client satisfaction.
Lawrence L. Martin is Professor of Public Affairs, Social Work and Public Administration at the University of Central Florida in Orlando. He was previously on the faculty of the Columbia University School of Social Work in New York City where he directed the program in social work administration. He is the author of 20 books and major monographs and over 100 articles and book chapters. Peter M. Kettner is Professor Emeritus at the Arizona State University School of Social Work. He is the author of six books, 50 articles, monographs, and book chapters on the topics of purchase-of-service contracting, privatization, macro practice in social work, human services planning, and social work administration. Over his 30 year career in academia he served as a consultant to five different state human service agencies and dozens of local nonprofit agencies on their purchase of service contracting practices and in the design and implementation of effectiveness-based planning systems. In retirement he has continued his writing and consultation with local government and nonprofit agencies.
Preface 1. Performance Accountability and Performance Measurement Introduction What is a Program? What is Performance Measurement? Performance Measurement and the Systems Model Why Adopt Performance Measurement? 2. Putting Performance Accountability and Performance Measurement in Perspective Introduction The Forces Promoting Performance Accountability and Performance Measurement The Language and Structure of SEA Reporting Developing and Using Performance Measures 3. Logic Models, Human Service Programs, and Performance Measurement Introduction Developing a Logic Model Agency Strategic Plan Focus Community Problem or Need Focus Social Problem Focus 4. Output Performance Measures Introduction What are Output Performance Measures? Developing Intermediate Output Performance Measures Final Output Performance Measures 5. Quality Performance Measures Introduction What is Quality? The Dimensions of Quality Types of Quality Performance Measures 6. Outcome Performance Measures Introduction What are Outcome Performance Measures? Client Problems Versus Client End States The Four Types of Outcome Performance Measures Intermediate and Final Outcome Performance Measures Selecting Outcome Performance Measures Cause-and-Effect Relationships Social Indicators as Final Outcome Performance Measures Outcome Performance Measures and Programs of Service Assessing the Four Types of Outcome Performance Measures 7. Introduction What are Numeric Counts? Examples of Numeric Counts The Preference for Numeric Counts An Assessment of Numeric Counts 8. Standardized Measures Introduction What are Standardized Measures? The Use of Standardized Measures for Evaluation Versus Research Difference in Standardized Measures Locating Standardized Measures Using Standardized Measures as Outcome Performance Measures Translating Standardized Measures Into Numeric Counts An Assessment of Standardized Measures 9. Level of Functioning (LOF) Scales Introduction What are Level of Functioning (LOF) Scales? Principles in Designing LOF Scales Translating LOF Scales Into Numeric Counts An Assessment of LOF Scales 10. Client Satisfaction Introduction Using Client Satisfaction as an Outcome Performance Measure Translating Client Satisfaction Outcomes Into Numeric Counts An Assessment of Client Satisfaction 11. Using Performance Measurement Information Introduction The Town The Agency and the Human Service Programs Planning Using Performance Measures Monitoring Performance Reporting Using Performance Measures Performance Accountability and Performance Measurement References Index About the Authors
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2nd Revised edition
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