Medical Instrument Design and Development: from Requirements to Market Placements

Medical Instrument Design and Development: from Requirements to Market Placements

By: Alessandro Neri (author), Claudio Becchetti (author)Hardback

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Description

This book explains all of the stages involved in developing medical devices; from concept to medical approval including system engineering, bioinstrumentation design, signal processing, electronics, software and ICT with Cloud and e-Health development. Medical Instrument Design and Development offers a comprehensive theoretical background with extensive use of diagrams, graphics and tables (around 400 throughout the book). The book explains how the theory is translated into industrial medical products using a market-sold Electrocardiograph disclosed in its design by the Gamma Cardio Soft manufacturer. The sequence of the chapters reflects the product development lifecycle. Each chapter is focused on a specific University course and is divided into two sections: theory and implementation. The theory sections explain the main concepts and principles which remain valid across technological evolutions of medical instrumentation. The Implementation sections show how the theory is translated into a medical product. The Electrocardiograph (ECG or EKG) is used as an example as it is a suitable device to explore to fully understand medical instrumentation since it is sufficiently simple but encompasses all the main areas involved in developing medical electronic equipment. Key Features: * Introduces a system-level approach to product design * Covers topics such as bioinstrumentation, signal processing, information theory, electronics, software, firmware, telemedicine, e-Health and medical device certification * Explains how to use theory to implement a market product (using ECG as an example) * Examines the design and applications of main medical instruments * Details the additional know-how required for product implementation: business context, system design, project management, intellectual property rights, product life cycle, etc. * Includes an accompanying website with the design of the certified ECG product (www.gammacardiosoft.it/book) * Discloses the details of a marketed ECG Product (from Gamma Cardio Soft) compliant with the ANSI standard AAMI EC 11 under open licenses (GNU GPL, Creative Common) This book is written for biomedical engineering courses (upper-level undergraduate and graduate students) and for engineers interested in medical instrumentation/device design with a comprehensive and interdisciplinary system perspective.

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About Author

Dr. Claudio Becchetti, RadioLabs, Italy Claudio Becchetti graduated with honors in Electronic Engineering in 1994 at the University of Rome, where he achieved the Ph.D. in Telecommunications in 1999. From 2002 to 2009, he was adjoint professor at the University "La Sapienza", faculty of Telecommunication Engineering where he held first a course on Industrial design and then a course on Signal Theory. Claudio has 7 years teaching experience working with students studying ECG. This device is well suited as a practical example for signal theory, digital signal processing, electronics and software engineering. Professor Alessandro Neri, University of Roma TRE, Italy Alessandro Neri he received the Doctoral Degree cum laude in Electronic Engineering from the University of Rome "La Sapienza" in 1977. Since 1992 he is responsible for coordination and management of research and teaching activities in the Telecommunication fields at the University of Roma TRE, currently leading the Digital Signal Processing, Multimedia & Optical Communications at the Applied Electronics Department. His research activity has mainly been focused on information theory, signal theory, and signal and image processing and their applications to both telecommunications systems and remote sensing.

Contents

Foreword xv Preface xvii Acknowledgment xxi 1 SYSTEM ENGINEERING 1 Chapter Organization 1 Part I: Theory 4 1.1 Introduction 4 1.2 Problem Formulation in Product Design 4 1.3 The Business Context for Design 6 1.4 The Engineering Product Design Process 10 1.5 System-subsystem Decomposition 15 1.6 The Product Development Life Cycle 21 1.7 Project Management in Product Design 24 1.8 Intellectual Property Rights and Reuse 30 Part II: Implementation 32 1.11 The ECG: Introduction 32 1.11.1 The ECG s diagnostic relevance 32 1.11.2 ECG Types 33 1.12 The ECG Design Problem Formulation 34 1.13 The ECG Business Plan 36 1.13.1 Market Size and Trend 37 1.13.2 Core and Distinctive Features 38 1.14 The ECG Design Process 40 1.14.1 Transverse Activities of the ECG Design Process 43 1.14.2 Core Activities of the ECG Design Process 44 1.15 ECG System subsystem Decomposition 44 1.15.1 Hardware Platform Decomposition 45 1.15.2 Software Application Decomposition 45 1.16 ECG Product Life Cycle 46 1.16.1 Overcoming Risk of Inadequate Visualization of ECG Signal 47 1.16.2 Overcoming Risk of Error Fixing in System Integration 50 1.16.3 Overcoming Risks for Non-stable/Unfeasible Requirements 50 1.17 The ECG Development Plan and Project Management 51 1.18 IPR and Reuse Strategy for the ECG 55 References 57 2 CONCEPTS AND REQUIREMENTS 59 Chapter Organization 59 Part I: Theory 61 2.1 Introduction 61 2.2 The Medical Instrumentation Approach 62 2.3 Extraction of Physiological Parameters 67 2.4 Pressure and Flow 70 2.4.1 Blood Pressure 72 2.4.2 Blood Flow and Hemodynamics 74 2.5 Biopotential Recording 79 2.6 Electroencephalography 81 2.7 Electromyography 85 Part II: Implementation 88 2.8 Introduction 88 2.9 Requirements Management 89 2.10 Medical Instruments Requirements and Standards 91 2.11 ECG Requirements 94 2.12 The Patient Component 96 2.12.1 The Heart s Pumping Function and the Circulatory System 96 2.12.2 Heart Conduction Control System 97 2.13 The ECG Method for Observation 99 2.13.1 Recording the Heart s Electrical Signals 99 2.13.2 ECG Definition and History 103 2.13.3 ECG Standard Method of Observation 103 2.14 Features of the Observations 108 2.14.1 ECG Signal 108 2.14.2 Clinically Significant Signal 110 2.14.3 Power Line Noise 117 2.14.4 Isoelectric Line Instability 118 2.14.5 Muscle Artifacts 119 2.15 Requirements Related to Measurements 119 2.16 Safety Requirements 126 2.16.1 EMC Performance 128 2.17 Usability and Marketing Requirements 131 2.18 Environment Issues 132 2.19 Economic Requirements 134 References 135 3 BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING DESIGN 137 Chapter Organization 138 Part I: Theory 139 3.1 Design Principles and Regulations 139 3.2 General Design System Model 141 3.3 Pressure and Flow Instruments 142 3.3.1 Blood Pressure Instruments 144 3.3.2 Flow Measurements 146 3.3.3 Measuring Oxygen Concentration 147 3.4 Biopotential Instruments 148 3.4.1 Electroencephalographs 148 3.4.2 Electromyographs 151 3.5 The Design Process 152 3.5.1 The Conceptual Design 155 3.5.2 System-wide Design Decisions 156 3.5.3 System Architectural Design 157 3.5.4 Risk Management 157 Part II: Implementation 160 3.6 ECG-wide Decisions 160 3.6.1 The Gamma Cardio CG Use Case 160 3.6.2 Human Factors and the User Interface Design 161 3.6.3 Patient Interface: the Biopotential Electrodes 167 3.7 The ECG System Architectural Design 170 3.7.1 Subsystem Identification 170 3.7.2 The Communication Interfaces 171 3.7.3 Acquisition Hardware Requirements 174 3.7.4 Firmware Requirements 176 3.7.5 Software Application Requirements 177 3.7.6 Concept of Execution among Subsystems 178 3.8 Gamma Cardio CG Technical File Structure 179 References 180 4 SIGNAL PROCESSING AND ESTIMATION 181 Chapter Organization 181 Part I: Theory 184 4.1 Discrete Representations of Analog Systems 184 4.2 Discrete Fourier Transform 189 4.2.1 Discrete Fourier Transform Statistics 194 4.3 Estimation Theory Framework 197 4.3.1 Minimum Mean Square Error Estimate 199 4.3.2 Minimum Mean Absolute Error Estimate (MMAE) 201 4.3.3 Maximum A Posteriori (MAP) Probability Estimate 202 4.3.4 Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) 203 4.4 Performance Indicators 204 4.4.1 Efficient Estimators 208 4.4.2 Fisher s Information Matrix 209 4.4.3 Akaike Information Criterion 212 Part II: Implementation 214 4.5 Analog to Digital Conversion 214 4.5.1 Indirect Sampling versus Direct Sampling 214 4.5.2 Quantizer Design 216 4.6 Signal Denoising 221 4.6.1 White Gaussian Signals in Additive White Gaussian Noise 221 4.6.2 Denoising of Gaussian Cyclostationary Signals 222 4.6.3 MMSE Digital Filter 222 4.7 Time of Arrival Estimation 224 References 229 5 APPLIED ELECTRONICS 231 Chapter Organization 231 Part I: Theory 233 5.0 Architectural Design 235 5.1 Sensors 236 5.2 Circuit Protection Function 243 5.2.1 Johnson Noise 246 5.2.2 Transient Voltage Suppressors 247 5.2.3 RF Filter Circuit Protection 248 5.2.4 Circuit Frequency Response 251 5.3 Buffer Stage 254 5.3.1 Operational Amplifiers 256 5.4 Analog Signal Processing 258 5.4.1 Summing Amplifier Circuit 259 5.4.2 Analog Signal Switching 260 5.5 Interference and Instrumentation Amplifiers 262 5.5.1 Eliminating In-band Interference 262 5.5.2 Patient Model 267 5.5.3 The ECG Model 268 5.5.4 Right Leg Connection 270 5.5.5 Right Leg Driver Circuit 272 5.6 Analog Filtering 273 5.6.1 Frequency Domain 273 5.6.2 Analog versus Digital Filtering 278 5.7 ADC Conversion 279 5.8 Programable Devices 285 5.9 Power Module 289 5.9.1 Power Sources 290 5.9.2 Electrical Safety and Appliance Design 294 5.9.3 Power Module Design 298 5.10 Baseband Digital Communication 301 5.10.1 Data Transmission Elements 302 Part II: Implementation 313 5.20 Gamma Cardio CG Architecture 313 5.20.1 ECG Design Choices 314 5.20.2 Gamma Cardio CG Complete Scheme 317 5.21 ECG Sensors 317 5.22 Gamma Cardio CG Protection 321 5.23 Gamma Cardio CG Buffer Stage 325 5.24 The Lead Selector 327 5.24.1 Calibration 331 5.25 ECG Amplification 332 5.25.1 ECG Circuits 333 5.25.2 Input Dynamic Range: Requirement Demonstrations 337 5.25.3 Gain Error: Requirement Demonstrations 338 5.26 Analog Filtering 339 5.27 The ADC Circuit 342 5.28 Programable Devices 346 5.28.1 Circuit Design 347 5.28.2 The Clock 348 5.29 Power Module 351 5.29.1 Power Module Circuit 353 5.30 Communication Module 353 Conclusion 357 References 358 6 MEDICAL SOFTWARE 359 Chapter Organization 359 Part I: Theory 361 6.1 Introduction 361 6.1.1 Intrinsic Risks and Software Engineering 362 6.1.2 Main Concepts in Software Development 363 6.1.3 Regulatory Requirements for Software 364 6.2 The Process: a Standard for Medical Software 365 6.2.1 IEC/EN 62304 Overview 365 6.2.2 Risk Analysis for Hardware and Software Design 368 6.2.3 Software Safety Classification 370 6.2.4 System Decomposition and Risks 371 6.2.5 Impact of Safety Classification 372 6.2.6 SOUP 372 6.3 Risk Management Process 374 6.3.1 Risk Management in Software 376 6.3.2 Risk Management for Medical Instrument Software 377 6.4 Software Development Process 379 6.4.1 Software Development Planning 380 6.4.2 Software Requirements Analysis 381 6.4.3 Software Architectural Design 382 6.4.4 Detailed Software Design 385 6.4.5 Software Unit Implementation and Verification 385 6.4.6 Software Integration and Integration Testing 387 6.4.7 Software System Testing 388 6.4.8 Software Release 388 6.5 Software Configuration Management Process 389 6.6 Software Problem Resolution Process 391 6.7 Software Maintenance Process 392 6.8 Guidelines on Software Design 393 6.8.1 Definitions 395 6.8.2 Basic Recommendations 396 6.8.3 Software Core Services 396 6.8.4 Defensive Programing 398 Part II: Implementation 400 6.9 System Decomposition 400 6.9.1 Gamma Cardio CG Use Case 400 6.9.2 System Decomposition 401 6.10 Risk Management 402 6.11 Software Application 403 6.11.1 Software Requirements 403 6.11.2 Architectural Design 407 6.11.3 Elaboration Module 409 6.12 Firmware 411 6.12.1 Firmware Requirements 411 6.12.2 Architectural Design 413 6.12.3 Automatic Test Capability 416 References 418 7 C-HEALTH 419 Chapter Organization 420 Part I: Theory 421 7.1 Introduction 421 7.1.1 The Assessment Framework 421 7.1.2 Assessment Framework for the Health Sector 422 7.2 The Cloud Computing Model 426 7.2.1 Basics of Cloud Computing 426 7.2.2 Cloud Platforms 428 7.2.3 Services in the Cloud 430 7.2.4 The Cloud Shape 432 7.2.5 Features of the Clouds 434 7.3 e-Health 435 7.3.1 Interoperability in e-Health 437 7.4 Electronic Health Record (EHR) 442 7.5 c-Health 445 Part II: Implementation 449 7.6 Telecardiology 450 7.6.1 Application Scenario 450 7.7 Telecardiology Technology 451 7.8 Workflow in Telecardiology 455 7.8.1 Basic Workflows 455 7.8.2 Alternative Workflows 457 7.8.3 Where and When Telecardiology Can Be Used 460 7.9 Risks of Telecardiology 463 References 465 8 CERTIFICATION PROCESS 467 Chapter Organization 467 Part I: Theory 469 8.1 Certification Objectives and Processes 469 8.1.1 Certification, Standards and Definitions 470 8.2 Regulations, Standards and Organizations 474 8.2.1 Technical Standards for Medical Devices 477 8.2.2 European Context 478 8.3 Basic Protection Concepts 480 8.3.1 Protection Against Electric Shock 480 8.3.2 Insulation 484 8.3.3 Degree of Protection Provided by Enclosures 485 8.4 Verification of Constructional Requirements 486 8.4.1 Choice of Safety Critical Materials and Components 486 8.4.2 Creepage Distances and Air Clearances 489 8.4.3 Markings 490 8.4.4 Conductors 492 8.4.5 Connections to the Power Supply 494 8.4.6 Fire Enclosure 495 8.5 Medical Equipment Safety Tests 495 8.5.1 Leakage Current 497 8.5.2 Heating 499 8.5.3 Dielectric Strength 500 8.5.4 Stability and Mechanical Strength 500 8.5.5 Abnormal Operating and Fault Conditions 501 8.5.6 Continuity of Protective Earthing 502 8.5.7 Residual Voltage 503 8.5.8 Voltage on the Accessible Parts 503 8.5.9 Energy Stored Pressurized Part 503 8.5.10 Current and Power Consumption 504 8.6 Electromagnetic Compatibility 504 8.6.1 Emissions 506 8.6.2 Immunity 511 8.6.3 The Test Report 513 Part II: Implementation 515 8.11 The Process 515 8.11.1 Device Description 516 8.11.2 Medical Device Classes 516 8.11.3 EU Conformity Assessment 519 8.11.4 Risk Management Deliverable 520 8.11.5 The Technical File 527 8.12 Regulatory Approaches to Medical Device Market Placement 537 8.13 Basic Concepts in Device Implementation 540 8.13.1 Protection Against Electric Shock 541 8.13.2 Insulation 541 8.13.3 Enclosure IP Protection 544 8.14 Verification on Design Performance 544 8.14.1 Safety-critical Materials 544 8.14.2 Creepage and Air Clearance 545 8.14.3 Other Verifications 545 8.15 Safety Tests 546 8.15.1 Leakage Current 546 8.15.2 Heating 546 8.15.3 Other Safety Tests 547 8.16 Electromagnetic Compatibility 548 8.16.1 Emission 549 8.16.2 Immunity 550 References 554 Summary of Regulations and Standards 555 Index 559

Product Details

  • publication date: 12/07/2013
  • ISBN13: 9781119952404
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 598
  • ID: 9781119952404
  • weight: 1042
  • ISBN10: 1119952409

Delivery Information

  • Saver Delivery: Yes
  • 1st Class Delivery: Yes
  • Courier Delivery: Yes
  • Store Delivery: Yes

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