Metal Sustainability: Global Challenges, Consequences, and Prospects

Metal Sustainability: Global Challenges, Consequences, and Prospects

By: Reed M. Izatt (editor)Hardback

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Description

The sustainable use of natural resources is an important global challenge, and improved metal sustainability is a crucial goal for the 21st century in order to conserve the supply of critical metals and mitigate the environmental and health issues resulting from unrecovered metals. Metal Sustainability: Global Challenges, Consequences and Prospects discusses important topics and challenges associated with sustainability in metal life cycles, from mining ore to beneficiation processes, to product manufacture, to recovery from end-of-life materials, to environmental and health concerns resulting from generated waste. The broad perspective presented highlights the global interdependence of the many stages of metal life cycles. Economic issues are emphasized and relevant environmental, health, political, industrial and societal issues are discussed. The importance of applying green chemistry principles to metal sustainability is emphasized. Topics covered include: Recycling and sustainable utilization of precious and specialty metals Formal and informal recycling from electronic and other high-tech wastes Global management of electronic wastes Metal reuse and recycling in developing countries Effects of toxic and other metal releases on the environment and human health Effect on bacteria of toxic metal release Selective recovery of platinum group metals and rare earth metals Metal sustainability from a manufacturing perspective Economic perspectives on sustainability, mineral development, and metal life cycles Closing the Loop Minerals Industry Issues The aim of this book is to improve awareness of the increasingly important role metals play in our high-tech society, the need to conserve our metal supply throughout the metal life cycle, the importance of improved metal recycling, and the effects that unhindered metal loss can have on the environment and on human health.

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About Author

Dr. Reed M. Izatt, Charles E. Maw Professor of Chemistry (Emeritus), Brigham Young University, U.S.A. Reed M. Izatt received a BS degree in Chemistry from Utah State University (1951) and a PhD degree in Chemistry with an Earth Sciences minor from Pennsylvania State University (1954). After post-doctoral work at Mellon Institute of Industrial Research, he embarked on an academic career at Brigham Young University retiring as Charles E. Maw Professor of Chemistry (1993). He is the author or co-author of over 550 publications. Research relevant to the subject matter of this book includes extensive studies of the coordination chemistry of metals; determination of trace metal concentration levels in human tissues and environmental samples; and development of novel liquid membrane and solid phase extraction systems capable of highly selective metal separations using molecular recognition principles. The separations work was recognized by the American Chemical Society in 1996 when Reed received the National Separation Science and Technology Award. In 1988, he co-founded IBC Advanced Technologies, Inc. (IBC). For 25 years, IBC has brought clean chemistry, highly selective metal separations to a variety of industries worldwide, including ore beneficiation and precious metal recycling. Reed has edited several books, contributed numerous chapters in books, written many journal and review articles and presented plenary, invited, and regular lectures on the subject of selective metal separations at universities worldwide; regional, national, and international chemistry conferences; and government laboratories.

Contents

List of Contributors xvii Preface xxi Acknowledgments xxiii 1 Recycling and Sustainable Utilization of Precious and Specialty Metals 1 Reed M. Izatt and Christian Hageluken 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 How did we come to this Situation? 4 1.3 Magnitude of the Waste Problem and Disposal of End-of-Life Products 7 1.4 Benefits Derived by the Global Community from Effective Recycling 8 1.5 Urban Mining 13 1.6 Technologies for Metal Separations and Recovery from EOL Wastes 16 1.7 Conclusions 19 References 21 2 Global Metal Reuse, and Formal and Informal Recycling from Electronic and Other High-Tech Wastes 23 Ian D. Williams 2.1 Introduction 23 2.2 Metal Sources 24 2.3 E-waste 28 2.4 Responses to the E-waste Problem 29 2.5 Reuse of Metals from High-tech Sources 31 2.6 Recycling of Metals from High-tech Sources 36 2.7 Conclusions 46 References 47 3 Global Management of Electronic Wastes: Challenges Facing Developing and Economy-in-Transition Countries 52 Oladele Osibanjo, Innocent C. Nnorom, Gilbert U. Adie, Mary B. Ogundiran, and Adebola A. Adeyi 3.1 Introduction 52 3.2 E-waste Composition 56 3.3 E-waste Generation 61 3.4 Problems with E-waste 63 3.5 E-waste Management Challenges Facing Developing Countries 65 3.6 Environmental and Health Impacts of E-Waste Management in Developing Countries 71 3.7 Solutions for Present and Future Challenges 73 3.8 Conclusions 77 References 78 4 Dynamics of Metal Reuse and Recycling in Informal Sector in Developing Countries 85 Mynepalli K. C. Sridhar and Taiwo B. Hammed 4.1 Introduction 85 4.2 Science of Metals 86 4.3 Technosphere, Demand and Mobility of Metals 89 4.4 Waste Dumpsites and Treasures of Heavy Metals 92 4.5 Scrap Metal and Consumer Markets 96 4.6 Export of Metal Scrap 99 4.7 E-waste Scavenging and End-of-Life Management 102 4.8 Scrap Metal Theft 105 4.9 Conclusions 106 References 106 5 Metal Sustainability from Global E-waste Management 109 Jinhui Li and Qingbin Song 5.1 Introduction 109 5.2 E-Waste Issues 109 5.3 E-Waste Management in China 112 5.4 Recycling of Metals Found in E-waste 119 5.5 Challenges and Efforts in Metal Sustainability in China 124 5.6 Summary 127 5.7 Acknowledgment 130 References 131 6 E-waste Recycling in China: Status Quo in 2015 134 Martin Streicher-Porte, Xinwen Chi, and Jianxin Yang 6.1 Introduction 134 6.2 Formal E-waste Collection and Recycling System in China 135 6.3 Informal E-waste Collection and Recycling 139 6.4 Conclusions 146 References 147 7 Metallurgical Recovery of Metals from Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) in PRC 151 Xueyi Guo, Yongzhu Zhang, and Kaihua Xu 7.1 Introduction 151 7.2 Major Sources of E-Waste in China 152 7.3 Strategies and Regulations for WEEE Management and Treatment 153 7.4 Recycling and Processing of WEEE 159 7.5 Current Issues in WEEE Treatment in China 167 7.6 Conclusions 167 References 168 8 Metal Pollution and Metal Sustainability in China 169 Xiaoyun Jiang, Shengpei Su, and Jianfei Song 8.1 Introduction 169 8.2 Heavy Metal Pollution in China 170 8.3 Metal Sustainability in China 185 8.4 Metal Sustainability in China: Future Prospects 192 References 193 9 Mercury Mining in China and its Environmental and Health Impacts 200 Guangle Qiu, Ping Li, and Xinbin Feng 9.1 Introduction 200 9.2 Mercury Mines and Mining 201 9.3 Mercury in the Environment 202 9.4 Human Exposure and Health Risk Assessment 211 9.5 Summary 216 References 216 10 Effects of Non-Essential Metal Releases on the Environment and Human Health 221 Peter G.C. Campbell and Jurgen Gailer 10.1 Introduction 221 10.2 Metal Biogeochemical Cycles 222 10.3 Metal Environmental Toxicology 226 10.4 Case Study: Cadmium 229 10.5 Chronic Low-Level Exposure of Human Populations to Non-Essential Metals 232 References 243 11 How Bacteria are Affected by Toxic Metal Release 253 Mathew L. Frankel, Sean C. Booth, and Raymond J. Turner 11.1 Introduction to Bacteria in the Environment 253 11.2 Bacterial Interactions with Metals 255 11.3 Bacterial Response to Toxic Metals 257 11.4 How Are Metals Toxic to Bacteria? 261 11.5 Conclusions 265 References 265 12 Application of Molecular Recognition Technology to Green Chemistry: Analytical Determinations of Metals in Metallurgical, Environmental, Waste, and Radiochemical Samples 271 Yoshiaki Furusho, Ismail M.M. Rahman, Hiroshi Hasegawa, and Neil E. Izatt 12.1 Introduction 271 12.2 Technologies Used for Green Chemistry Trace Element Analysis 272 12.3 Elemental Analysis Instrumentation 273 12.4 Arsenic Speciation in Food Analysis 275 12.5 Metal Separation Resins and Their Application to Elemental Analyses 275 12.6 Green Chemistry Analytical Applications of Metal Separation Resins 279 12.7 Conclusions 288 References 290 13 Ionic Liquids for Sustainable Production of Actinides and Lanthanides 295 Paula Berton, Steven P. Kelley, and Robin D. Rogers 13.1 Introduction 296 13.2 f-Element Chemistry in Ionic Liquids 297 13.3 Applications of Ionic Liquids in f-Element Isolation 298 13.4 Summary 308 13.5 Acknowledgments 308 References 309 14 Selective Recovery of Platinum Group Metals and Rare Earth Metals from Complex Matrices Using a Green Chemistry/Molecular Recognition Technology Approach 317 Steven R. Izatt, James S. McKenzie, Ronald L. Bruening, Reed M. Izatt, Neil E. Izatt, and Krzysztof E. Krakowiak 14.1 Introduction 317 14.2 Molecular Recognition Technology 319 14.3 Strengths of Molecular Recognition Technology in Metal Separations 320 14.4 Applications of Molecular Recognition Technology to Separations Involving Platinum Group Metals 322 14.5 Applications of Molecular Recognition Technology to Separations Involving Rare Earth Elements 327 14.6 Comparison of Opex and Capex Costs for Molecular Recognition Technology and Solvent Extraction in Separation and Recovery of Rare Earth Metals 330 14.7 Conclusions 331 References 331 15 Refining and Recycling Technologies for Precious Metals 333 Tetsuya Ueda, Satoshi Ichiishi, Akihiko Okuda, and Koichi Matsutani 15.1 Introduction 333 15.2 Precious Metals Supply and Demand 334 15.3 Autocatalysts (Pt, Pd, Rh) 337 15.4 Electronic Components 344 15.5 Catalysts for Fuel Cell Application 349 15.6 Extraction and Refining Technologies for Precious Metals 355 15.7 Conclusions 359 References 360 16 The Precious Metals Industry: Global Challenges, Responses, and Prospects 361 Michael B. Mooiman, Kathryn C. Sole, and Nicholas Dinham 16.1 Introduction: The Precious Metals Industry 361 16.2 Current and Emerging Challenges 365 16.3 Responding to the Challenges: Mitigating Approaches and New Developments 380 16.4 Concluding Remarks: A Long-Term View of the Precious Metals Industry 388 References 389 17 Metal Sustainability from a Manufacturing Perspective: Initiatives at ASARCO LLC Amarillo Copper Refinery 397 Luis G. Navarro, Tracy Morris, Weldon Read, and Krishna Parameswaran 17.1 Introduction 397 17.2 General Overview of Sustainability from the Copper Industry Perspective 398 17.3 A Brief History of ASARCO LLC 399 17.4 How Refined Copper Is Produced 400 17.5 Introduction to Physical Chemistry of Copper Electrorefining 402 17.6 Electrolyte Purification 404 17.7 Recovery of Metals by Precipitation from Acidic Streams 409 17.8 Other Sustainable Development Efforts at ACR 419 17.9 Conclusions 421 References 422 18 Sustainability Initiatives at ASARCO LLC: A Mining Company Perspective 424 Dr. Krishna Parameswaran 18.1 Introduction 424 18.2 What is Sustainable Mining? 425 18.3 Exploration 427 18.4 Innovative Reclamation Methods 436 18.5 Reclamation of San Xavier Tailings Storage Facilities and Waste Rock Deposition Areas 441 18.6 Fostering Renewable Energy Projects on Disturbed Lands 442 18.7 Utilization of Mining Wastes 448 18.8 Conclusions 450 References 451 19 Recycling and Dissipation of Metals: Distribution of Elements in the Metal, Slag, and Gas Phases During Metallurgical Processing 453 Kenichi Nakajima, Osamu Takeda, Takahiro Miki, Kazuyo Matsubae, and Tetsuya Nagasaka 19.1 Introduction: Background, Motivation, and Objectives 453 19.2 Method: Chemical Thermodynamic Analysis of the Distribution of Elements in the Smelting Process 454 19.3 Element Distribution Tendencies in Recycling Metals 456 19.4 Metallurgical Knowledge for Recycling: Element Radar Chart for Metallurgical Processing 463 References 465 20 Economic Perspectives on Sustainability, Mineral Development, and Metal Life Cycles 467 Roderick G. Eggert 20.1 Introduction 467 20.2 The Many Faces of Sustainability 468 20.3 Economic Concepts 469 20.4 Implications for Mine Development 471 20.5 Implications for Regional and National Mineral Development 473 20.6 Implications for Metal Life Cycles, Material Efficiency, and the Circular Economy 476 20.7 What to Do? 481 Acknowledgments 482 References 483 21 Closing the Loop: Minerals Industry Issues 485 William J. Rankin and Nawshad Haque 21.1 Introduction 485 21.2 The Waste Hierarchy 486 21.3 Reducing and Eliminating Wastes 487 21.3.1 Cleaner Production 490 21.3.2 Wastes as Co-products 490 21.3.3 Process Re-engineering 491 21.3.4 Closing the Loop 492 21.3.5 Stewardship 494 21.4 Tools for Closing the Loop 497 21.4.1 A Case Study: Steelmaking Using Biomass 497 21.4.1.1 Economic Benefits 499 21.4.1.2 Environmental Benefits 501 21.4.1.3 Summary 501 21.5 Closing the Loop: Barriers and Drivers 503 References 505 Index 508

Product Details

  • publication date: 07/10/2016
  • ISBN13: 9781119009108
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 552
  • ID: 9781119009108
  • weight: 1014
  • ISBN10: 1119009103

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