Methods in Behavioral Research continues to guide students toward success by helping them study smarter and more efficiently. In tandem with SmartBook, McGraw-Hill Education's adaptive and personalized reading experience, Cozby and Bates provide helpful pedagogy, rich examples, and a clear voice in their approach to methodological decision-making.
Paul C. Cozby is Professor of Psychology at California State University, Fullerton, and Northcentral University. Dr. Cozby was an undergraduate at the University of California, Riverside, and received his Ph.D. in psychology from the University of Minnesota. He is a fellow of the American Psychological Association, member of the Association for Psychological Science, and has served as officer of the Society for Computers in Psychology. He is Executive Officer of the Western Psychological Association. He is the author of Using Computers in the Behavioral Sciences and co-editor with Daniel Perlman of Social Psychology. Scott C. Bates is a Professor of Psychology, Associate Dean of the School of Graduate Studies, and Associate Vice President for Research at Utah State University. He earned a B.S. in Psychology from Whitman College, an M.S. in Psychology from Western Washington University, and a Ph.D. in social psychology from Colorado State University. His research interests and experiences are varied. He has conducted research in areas as wide-ranging as adolescent problem behavior and problem-behavior prevention, teaching and learning in higher education, and the psychology consequences of growing and tending plants in outer space.
Contents Preface xii About the Authors xix 1 SCIENTIFIC UNDERSTANDING OF BEHAVIOR 1 Importance of Research Methods 2 Ways of Knowing 4 Goals of Behavioral Science 8 Basic and Applied Research 12 Study Terms 18 Review Questions 18 Activities 18 Answers 19 2 WHERE TO START 20 Research Questions, Hypotheses, and Predictions 21 Sources of Ideas 22 Types of Research Reports 28 Exploring Past Research 35 Study Terms 44 Review Questions 44 Answers 44 3 ETHICS IN BEHAVIORAL RESEARCH 45 Milgram's Obedience Experiment 46 Historical Context of Current Ethical Standards 48 APA Ethics Code 49 Assessment of Risks and Benefits 51 Informed Consent 54 The Importance of Debriefing 59 Institutional Review Boards 60 Research with Nonhuman Animal Subjects 62 Being an Ethical Researcher: The Issue of Misrepresentation 64 Conclusion: Risks and Benefits Revisited 68 Study Terms 71 Review Questions 71 Activities 71 Answers 73 4 FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH ISSUES 74 Validity: An Introduction 75 Variables 75 Operational Definitions of Variables 76 Relationships Between Variables 78 Nonexperimental Versus Experimental Methods 83 Experimental Methods: Additional Considerations 92 Evaluating Research: Summary of the Three Validities 96 Study Terms 97 Review Questions 98 Activities 98 Answers 100 5 MEASUREMENT CONCEPTS 101 Reliability of Measures 102 Construct Validity of Measures 107 Reactivity of Measures 110 Variables and Measurement Scales 111 Study Terms 117 Review Questions 117 Activities 117 Answers 118 6 OBSERVATIONAL METHODS 119 Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches 120 Naturalistic Observation 121 Systematic Observation 124 Case Studies 127 Archival Research 128 Study Terms 133 Review Questions 134 Activities 134 Answers 135 7 ASKING PEOPLE ABOUT THEMSELVES: SURVEY RESEARCH 136 Why Conduct Surveys? 137 Constructing Questions to Ask 139 Responses to Questions 143 Finalizing the Survey Instrument 146 Administering Surveys 147 Survey Designs to Study Changes Over Time 150 Sampling From a Population 151 Sampling Techniques 153 Evaluating Samples 156 Reasons for Using Convenience Samples 159 Study Terms 161 Review Questions 162 Activities 162 Answers 163 8 EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN 164 Confounding and Internal Validity 165 Basic Experiments 166 Assigning Participants to Experimental Conditions 171 Study Terms 180 Review Questions 180 Activities 180 Answers 181 9 CONDUCTING EXPERIMENTS 182 Selecting Research Participants 183 Manipulating the Independent Variable 184 Measuring the Dependent Variable 190 Additional Controls 194 Final Planning Considerations 197 Analyzing and Interpreting Results 200 Communicating Research to Others 200 Study Terms 202 Review Questions 202 Activities 203 Answers 204 10 COMPLEX EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS 205 Increasing the Number of Levels of an Independent Variable 206 Increasing the Number of Independent Variables: Factorial Designs 208 Outcomes of a 2 x 2 Factorial Design 213 Assignment Procedures and Factorial Designs 216 Increasing the Number of Levels of an Independent Variable 218 Factorial Designs with Three or More Independent Variables 219 Study Terms 222 Review Questions 222 Activities 223 Answers 223 11 SINGLE-CASE, QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL, AND DEVELOPMENTAL RESEARCH 224 Single-Case Experimental Designs 225 Quasi-Experimental Designs 229 Developmental Research Designs 238 Study Terms 243 Review Questions 243 Activities 244 12 UNDERSTANDING RESEARCH RESULTS: DESCRIPTION AND CORRELATION 246 Scales of Measurement: A Review 247 Describing Results 248 Frequency Distributions 250 Descriptive Statistics 252 Graphing Relationships 253 Correlation Coefficients: Describing the Strength of Relationships 255 Effect Size 260 Regression Equations 261 Multiple Correlation/Regression 262 The Third-Variable Problem 264 Structural Equation Modeling 265 Study Terms 267 Review Questions 267 Activities 268 Answers 269 13 UNDERSTANDING RESEARCH RESULTS: STATISTICAL INFERENCE 270 Samples and Populations 271 Inferential Statistics 272 Null and Research Hypotheses 272 Probability and Sampling Distributions 273 Group Differences: The t and F Tests 276 Type I and Type II Errors 282 Choosing a Significance Level 285 Interpreting Nonsignificant Results 286 Choosing a Sample Size: Power Analysis 288 The Importance of Replications 289 Significance of a Pearson r Correlation Coefficient 289 Computer Analysis of Data 289 Selecting the Appropriate Statistical Test 290 Study Terms 293 Review Questions 294 Activities 294 Answers 295 14 GENERALIZATION 296 Generalizing to Other Populations 297 Generalizing Across Methods 303 Supporting Good External Validity 305 The Importance of Replications 306 Evaluating Generalizations via Literature Reviews and Meta-analyses 310 Using Research to Improve Lives 312 Study Terms 313 Review Questions 314 Activities 31 4 APPENDIX A: REPORTING RESEARCH 315 Introduction 315 Writing Your Report 316 Formatting Your Report 322 Organization of the Report 324 The Use of Headings 335 Citing and Referencing Sources 336 Abbreviations 345 Reporting Numbers and Statistics 346 Conclusion: Written Reports 348 Paper and Poster Presentations 348 Sample Paper 352 APPENDIX B: ETHICAL PRINCIPLES OF PSYCHOLOGISTS AND CODE OF CONDUCT 371 Preamble 371 General Principles 372 Standard 8: Research and Publication 374 APPENDIX C: STATISTICAL TESTS 378 Descriptive Statistics 378 Statistical Significance and Effect Size 381 Glossary 399 References 407 Index 419