MicroRNAs in Toxicology and Medicine

MicroRNAs in Toxicology and Medicine

By: Saura C. Sahu (author)Hardback

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Description

Providing insight into the current trends and future directions of research in this rapidly developing new field, microRNAs in Toxicology and Medicine is a comprehensive and authoritative compilation of developments in the role of microRNAs in disease and their use in toxicology, presented by internationally recognized investigators in a single, accessible volume. This valuable and excellent source of authoritative and up-to-date information for investigators, toxicologists, drug industry, risk assessors, and regulators in academia, industry, and government reflects the multidimensional and multidisciplinary character of this emerging area of research.

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Contents

List of Contributors xix Preface xxiii Acknowledgments xxv PART I microRNAs AND TOXICOLOGY 1 1 Introduction 3 Saura C. Sahu References 4 2 Environmental Toxicants and Perturbation of miRNA Signaling 5 Kathryn A. Bailey and Rebecca C. Fry 2.1 Introduction 5 2.2 miRNAs: Description and Biological Significance 8 2.2.1 miRNA Biosynthesis and Processing 8 2.2.2 Interaction of miRNAs with mRNA Targets 9 2.3 Environmental Toxicant-Associated miRNA Perturbations 10 2.3.1 Toxicant Class 1: Carcinogenic Metals (Arsenic and Cadmium) 10 2.3.1.1 Arsenic 10 2.3.1.2 Cadmium 12 2.3.2 Toxicant Class 2: Air Toxicants (Formaldehyde, Diesel Exhaust Particles, Cigarette Smoke) 13 2.3.2.1 Formaldehyde 13 2.3.2.2 Diesel Exhaust Particles (DEPs) 14 2.3.2.3 Cigarette Smoke 14 2.3.3 Toxicant Class 3: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (B(a)P) 17 2.3.4 Toxicant Class 4: Endocrine Disruptors (BPA, DDT, Fludioxonil, Fenhexamid, and Nonylphenol) 19 2.3.4.1 BPA, DDT, Fludioxonil, Fenhexamid 19 2.3.4.2 Nonylphenol (NP) 20 2.4 Conclusions and Future Directions 22 Acknowledgments 22 References 22 3 microRNAs in Drug-Induced Liver Toxicity 33 Si Chen, Jiekun Xuan and Lei Guo 3.1 Introduction 33 3.2 miRNA Tissue Distribution and Abundance 34 3.2.1 miRNA in Solid Tissues 34 3.2.2 microRNA in Body Fluids 35 3.3 miRNA and Drug-Induced Liver Toxicity 35 3.3.1 Acetaminophen 36 3.3.2 Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) 37 3.3.3 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin (TCDD) 37 3.3.4 Benzo[a]pyrene 37 3.3.5 Tamoxifen 38 3.3.6 Others 38 3.4 Circulating miRNAs as Potential Biomarkers for Drug-Induced Liver Toxicity 38 3.4.1 Introduction of Circulating miRNAs 38 3.4.1.1 Exosomes 39 3.4.1.2 HDL 39 3.4.1.3 Ago2 39 3.4.2 Blood miRNAs in Drug-Induced Liver Toxicity 39 3.4.3 Urine miRNAs in Drug-Induced Liver Toxicity 41 3.4.4 Technique Challenges 42 3.5 Mechanistic Studies and Perspectives 42 Disclaimer 44 References 44 4 Fishing for microRNAs in Toxicology 49 Jennifer L. Freeman, Gregory J. Weber and Maria S. Sepulveda 4.1 microRNAs in Toxicology 49 4.2 Fish Models in Toxicology 49 4.2.1 Small Fish Models in Toxicology 50 4.2.2 Large Fish Models in Toxicology 51 4.3 Fish as Models for Studying miRNA Function 51 4.3.1 miRNA Studies in Zebrafish 51 4.3.2 miRNA Studies in Other Fish Models 52 4.4 Application of Fish Models in Toxicity Studies of miRNA Alterations 52 4.4.1 Zebrafish in Toxicity Studies of miRNA Alterations 52 4.4.2 Other Fish Models in Toxicity Studies of miRNA Alterations 68 4.5 Summary 68 Acknowledgments 68 References 68 PART II microRNAs AND DISEASE STATES 77 5 microRNAs and Inflammation 79 Yan Huang, Samir N. Ghadiali and S. Patrick Nana-Sinkam 5.1 Introduction 79 5.2 miRNA Biogenesis and Functions 80 5.3 miRNAs in Hematopoietic Systems 80 5.4 miRNA and Inflammatory Diseases 81 5.5 Regulation of the Immune System 86 5.5.1 Acquired Immunity 86 5.5.2 Innate Immunity 86 5.6 Regulation of miRNA Expression 87 5.6.1 Regulation of miRNA by Cytokines and Bacterial Toxins 87 5.6.2 Regulation of miRNA by Mechanical Stimuli 88 5.7 Select miRNA Regulation of Inflammation 89 5.7.1 miR-146a: Negative Regulator of Immune Response 89 5.7.2 Role of miR-155 in Mediating Inflammatory Responses 91 5.7.3 miR-125a/b 92 5.7.4 miR-181a 93 5.8 Conclusion 94 References 94 6 Regulatory Role of microRNAs in Mutagenesis 101 Fanxue Meng, Yang Luan, Jian Yan and Tao Chen 6.1 Introduction 101 6.2 miRNA Roles in Xenobiotic Metabolism 102 6.3 miRNA Roles in the Cell Cycle 105 6.4 miRNA Roles in DNA Repair 106 6.5 Apoptosis 107 6.6 miRNA Regulation and Mutation Formation 108 6.7 Conclusions 109 Disclaimer 109 References 110 7 microRNAs and Cancer 113 Dongsheng Yan and Geir Skogerbo 7.1 Introduction 113 7.2 miRNAs are Deregulated in Cancer 114 7.3 miRNAs Function as Oncogenes and Tumor Suppressor Genes 116 7.4 miRNAs in Cancer Metastasis 117 7.5 miRNAs in Cancer Stem Cells 119 7.6 Mutations in miRNA Loci 119 7.7 Mutations in miRNA Target Genes 120 7.8 Prospective: miRNA as Biomarkers and Therapeutics 121 References 121 8 miRNAs in Cancer Invasion and Metastasis 133 Brock Humphries and Chengfeng Yang 8.1 Introduction 133 8.2 miRNAs and Cancer Invasion and Metastasis 136 8.2.1 miRNAs Involved in Angiogenesis 136 8.2.2 miRNAs Involved in Cancer Cell Detachment, Migration, and Invasion 138 8.2.3 miRNAs Involved in Cancer Cell Intravasation 140 8.2.4 miRNAs Involved in Circulating Cancer Cell Survival 142 8.2.5 miRNAs Involved in Cancer Cell Extravasation 143 8.2.6 miRNAs Involved in Metastatic Colonization 144 8.3 miRNAs as Useful Cancer Prognostic Markers 146 8.4 Future Perspectives 147 References 148 9 The Role of microRNAs in Tumor Progression and Therapy 153 Azfur S. Ali, Aamir Ahmad, Shadan Ali, Philip A. Philip and Fazlul H. Sarkar 9.1 Introduction 153 9.2 Tumor Progression 154 9.3 Key Signaling Pathways 154 9.3.1 Angiogenesis 154 9.3.2 The Ras Pathway 155 9.3.3 The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Pathway 155 9.3.4 The PI3K/Akt Pathway 156 9.4 The miRNAs as Regulators of Tumor Progression 156 9.4.1 Current Therapies to Control Tumor Progression 157 9.4.2 Tumor Promoter miRNAs 158 9.4.2.1 miR-21 158 9.4.2.2 miR-155 159 9.4.3 Tumor Suppressor miRNAs 159 9.4.3.1 The miR-200 Family 159 9.4.3.2 miR-146a 160 9.4.3.3 The let-7 Family 160 9.5 Regulation of miRNAs by Novel Anticancer Compounds 160 9.6 Conclusions and Perspectives 161 References 162 10 Current Understanding of microRNAs as Therapeutic Targets in Cancer 167 Marion Gayral, Jerome Torrisani and Pierre Cordelier 10.1 Introduction on the Rationale of Using miRNAs as Therapeutics in Cancer 167 10.2 Current Approaches to Target miRNAs 167 10.3 Evidence of Successful miRNA Targeting in Experimental Cancer Models 168 10.4 Open Question: Targeting miRNA Processing in Cancer Cells 170 10.5 Concluding Remarks 170 References 170 11 microRNAs, New Players in Cancer Chemoprevention 173 Bin Yi and Yaguang Xi 11.1 Introduction 173 11.2 miRNA and the Natural Products 175 11.2.1 Vitamin A 175 11.2.2 Vitamin B 176 11.2.3 Vitamin D 176 11.2.4 Vitamin E 176 11.2.5 Fatty Acids 176 11.2.6 Curcumin 177 11.2.7 Resveratrol 177 11.2.8 Ellagitannin 177 11.2.9 Genistein 177 11.2.10 Catechins 178 11.2.11 Indoles 178 11.3 miRNA and Pharmaceuticals 178 11.3.1 Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) 178 11.3.2 Estrogen Receptor Antagonist 181 11.4 Perspectives 182 Acknowledgments 183 References 183 12 microRNA and Neurodegenerative Diseases 189 Josephine Malmevik, Malin Akerblom and Johan Jakobsson 12.1 Introduction 189 12.2 miRNAs and Parkinson s Disease 191 12.3 miRNAs and Alzheimer s Disease 193 12.4 miRNAs and Huntington s Disease 195 12.5 Outlook 195 Acknowledgements 196 References 196 13 Sleep and microRNAs (miRNAs) in Neurodegenerative Diseases 201 Daniel B. Kay and Christopher J. Davis 13.1 Sleep and microRNAs (miRNAs) in Neurodegenerative Diseases 201 13.2 miRNAs and Sleep 202 13.3 Aging 203 13.4 Alzheimer s Disease 204 13.5 Parkinson s Disease 205 13.6 Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease 206 13.7 Huntington s Disease 207 13.8 Multiple Sclerosis 208 13.9 Fronto-Temporal Dementia 208 13.10 Summary 208 Acknowledgments 209 References 209 14 Role of microRNA in Autism Spectrum Disorder 215 Tewarit Sarachana and Valerie W. Hu 14.1 Introduction 215 14.2 Epidemiology of ASD 216 14.3 Etiology of ASD: Genetic Associations 216 14.4 ASD as Multigenic Systemic Disorders 217 14.5 Evidence for Epigenetic Contributions 218 14.6 The Role of microRNAs in Neurodevelopment 218 14.7 microRNAs in Neurodevelopmental and Psychiatric Disorders: An Overview 219 14.8 microRNA Expression Profiles in Autism Spectrum Disorder 220 14.8.1 Evidence for Dysregulated miRNAs in Brain and Blood 220 14.8.2 Identification of Novel Gene Targets of Differentially Expressed miRNAs in ASD 220 14.8.3 Brain-Related miRNAs are Differentially Expressed in LCLs from Individuals with ASD 222 14.8.4 Functional Associations of Confirmed Differentially Expressed miRNAs 225 14.9 Conclusions 226 Acknowledgments 227 References 227 15 The Emerging Function of Natural Products as Regulators of miRNAs in Human Diseases 237 Keitaro Hagiwara, Luc Gailhouste, Nobuyoshi Kosaka and Takahiro Ochiya 15.1 Introduction 237 15.2 History of Natural Products as Drugs 238 15.3 Functions of miRNAs in Human Diseases 238 15.4 Regulation of miRNAs using Natural Products 239 15.5 Resveratrol and miRNAs 239 15.6 EGCG and miRNAs 241 15.7 Curcumin and miRNAs 242 15.8 Isoflavone and miRNAs 242 15.9 Metformin miRNA 242 15.10 Traditional Herbs and miRNAs 243 15.11 Polyphenol and miRNAs 243 15.12 Rice and miRNA 243 15.13 Human Breast Milk and miRNAs 244 15.14 Conclusion 245 Acknowledgments 245 References 245 PART III microRNAs AND STEM CELLS 249 16 Pluripotency and Early Cell Fate Decisions are Orchestrated by microRNAs 251 Matthias Jung and Insa S. Schroeder 16.1 Importance of microRNAs in ES and iPS Cells 251 16.2 Biogenesis and Function of microRNAs 252 16.3 microRNAs Mark ES Cell Identity 253 16.3.1 ES Cell Identity is Characterized by Distinct miRs 253 16.3.2 Mouse ES Cell-Specific miRs 254 16.3.3 Human ES Cell-Specific miRs 255 16.3.4 Self-Renewal of ES Cells is Regulated by Cell Cycle Regulating miRs 255 16.3.5 Differentiation Capacity of ES Cells is Maintained by miRs 256 16.3.6 Isoforms and 3 Variability in ES Cell-Specific miRs 256 16.4 microRNAs Guide Induced Pluripotency 257 16.4.1 Reprogramming Factors Regulate ES Cell-Associated miRs 257 16.4.2 Differentiation of ES and iPS Cells is Prevented by miRs 258 16.4.3 Reprogramming Requires ES Cell-Specific miRs 258 16.5 microRNAs Manipulate Cell Fate Decision 259 16.5.1 Induction of Early Differentiation is Regulated by miRs 259 16.5.2 Major Signaling Pathways in ES Cells Regulated by miRs 260 16.5.3 Differentiation of ES Cells Can be Manipulated by miRs 260 16.5.4 Cell Fate Decisions are Influenced by miRs and RNA Binding Proteins (RBPs) 261 References 262 17 microRNAs in Cancer Stem Cells: Micromanagers of Malignancy 269 Arun Bhardwaj, Sumit Arora, Seema Singh, and Ajay P. Singh 17.1 Introduction 269 17.2 Cancer Stem Cells 270 17.2.1 Origin of Cancer Stem Cells 270 17.2.2 Characteristics and Pathological Significance of Cancer Stem Cells 271 17.3 microRNAs: Biology and Mechanism 273 17.4 Role of microRNAs in the Regulation of Genes and Signaling Pathways Associated with Cancer Stem Cells 273 17.4.1 HMGA2 275 17.4.2 Bcl-2 275 17.4.3 Bmi-1 276 17.4.4 Wnt/ -Catenin 276 17.4.5 Notch 277 17.4.6 Hedgehog 277 17.4.7 TGF- 278 17.5 Translational Implications and Future Perspectives 279 References 279 PART IV microRNAs AND GENOMICS 285 18 microRNAs: Tiny Regulators of Great Potential for Gene Regulation 287 Nahid Akhtar and Tariq M. Haqqi 18.1 Introduction 287 18.2 microRNAs: Biogenesis and Expression Criteria 288 18.3 Mechanism of miRNA Mediated Regulation of Genes 288 18.4 Complexities of miRNA Regulation 290 18.5 microRNA and Epigenetics 291 18.6 Role of miRNAs in Biological Processes 295 18.7 microRNAs: Association with Disease Pathogenesis 296 18.8 microRNAs: Another Way to Unravel Disease Pathogenesis 297 18.9 microRNAs as Novel Therapeutic Targets 298 18.10 Concluding Remarks 299 Competing Interests 300 Conflict of interest statement 300 Acknowledgments 300 References 300 19 Exploration of microRNA Genomic Variation Associated with Common Human Diseases 309 Joel Fontanarosa and Yang Dai 19.1 Introduction 309 19.2 Methods 310 19.3 Results 311 19.4 Discussion 313 Acknowledgment 315 References 315 PART V microRNAs AND EPIGENOMICS 317 20 Crosstalk between microRNAs and Epigenetics: From the Nutritional Perspective 319 Zhenhua Liu, Stephanie A Tammen, Simonetta Friso and Sang-Woon Choi 20.1 Introduction 319 20.2 Epigenetic Regulation of microRNA Expression 321 20.2.1 microRNA Biogenesis and Epigenetic Regulation 321 20.2.2 Epigenetically-Regulated microRNAs 323 20.2.2.1 microRNAs Controlled by Promoter Methylation 323 20.2.2.2 microRNAs Controlled by Histone Modification 324 20.3 Regulation of Epigenetic Machinery by microRNAs 326 20.3.1 Epigenetic Machinery and its Regulation by microRNA 326 20.3.2 epi-miRNAs 327 20.4 microRNA and Epigenetics: Regulation by Nutrition 329 20.4.1 Nutrition and Epigenetics 329 20.4.1.1 One-Carbon Nutrients 329 20.4.1.2 Dietary Bioactive Components 329 20.4.2 Nutrition and microRNA 331 20.4.2.1 One-Carbon Nutrients 331 20.4.2.2 Dietary Bioactive Components 331 20.4.3 Nutritional Modulation of the Epigenetics-microRNA Inter-Regulatory Network 332 20.5 Summary 333 References 334 PART VI microRNAs AND BIOMARKERS 341 21 Body Fluid microRNAs as Toxicological Biomarkers 343 Zhishan Wang and Chengfeng Yang 21.1 microRNA History, Biogenesis and Functions 343 21.2 Differential Expression of miRNAs During Development and Diseases 344 21.3 Alterations of miRNA Expressions by Toxicant Exposures 345 21.4 Discovery of Body Fluid miRNAs 346 21.5 Body Fluid miRNAs as Toxicological Biomarkers 347 21.5.1 Plasma or Serum miRNAs as Toxicological Biomarkers 347 21.5.1.1 Plasma or Serum miRNAs as Biomarkers for Liver Injuries 347 21.5.1.2 Plasma or Serum miRNAs as Biomarkers for Heart Injuries 349 21.5.1.3 Plasma or Serum miRNAs as Biomarkers for Kidney Injuries 350 21.5.1.4 Plasma or Serum miRNAs as Biomarkers for Radiation Exposure 351 21.5.1.5 Plasma or Serum miRNAs as Biomarkers for Drug Abuse 353 21.5.2 Urinary miRNAs as Toxicological Biomarkers 353 21.5.2.1 Urinary miRNAs as Biomarkers for Kidney Injuries 353 21.5.2.2 Urinary miRNAs as Biomarkers for Liver Injuries 354 21.5.3 Other Body Fluid miRNAs as Toxicological Biomarkers 355 21.6 Challenges and the Future of Body Fluid miRNAs as Biomarkers 356 References 358 22 Cell-free microRNAs as Biomarkers in Human Diseases 363 Xi Yang, William B. Mattes, Qiang Shi, Zuquan Weng and William F. Salminen 22.1 Introduction 363 22.2 Secretion and Transportation of Cell-Free miRNAs in Body Fluids 365 22.3 Technical Challenges in the Analysis of Cell-Free miRNAs 367 22.4 Cell-Free miRNAs as Novel Potential Biomarkers for Cancers and Tissue Injuries 369 22.4.1 Acute Myeloid Leukemia and B-Cell Lymphoma 370 22.4.2 Bladder Cancer 370 22.4.3 Breast Cancer 370 22.4.4 Colorectal Cancer 373 22.4.5 Gastric Cancer 373 22.4.6 Hepatocellular Carcinoma 374 22.4.7 Lung Cancer 374 22.4.8 Melanoma 375 22.4.9 Oral and Squamous Cell Carcinoma 375 22.4.10 Ovarian Cancer 376 22.4.11 Pancreatic Cancer 376 22.4.12 Prostate Cancer 377 22.4.13 Cardiovascular Diseases 377 22.4.14 Drug-Induced Liver Injury 379 22.4.15 Kidney Injury 380 22.5 Conclusion and Perspectives 380 Disclaimer 380 References 381 23 Plasma microRNAs as Biomarkers of Human Diseases 389 Katarina Cuk, Dharanija Madhavan, Andrey Turchinovich and Barbara Burwinkel 23.1 Introduction 389 23.2 Cancer 390 23.2.1 Breast Cancer 390 23.2.2 Prostate Cancer 391 23.2.3 Lung Cancer 406 23.2.4 Colorectal Cancer 407 23.3 Cardiovascular Diseases and Disorders 408 23.3.1 Acute Myocardial Infarction 408 23.3.2 Other Cardiovascular Diseases 410 23.4 Neurological Diseases and Disorders 411 23.5 Diabetes Mellitus 412 23.6 Infectious Diseases 413 23.7 Standardization of Circulating miRNA Analysis 413 23.7.1 Sample Processing and Handling 413 23.7.2 Data Normalization 415 23.8 Discovery, Origins and Functions of Circulating miRNAs 416 References 418 24 Circulating microRNAs as Biomarkers of Drug-Induced Pancreatitis 425 Rodney Rouse, Barry A. Rosenzweig and Karol L. Thompson 24.1 Introduction 425 24.2 Pancreatic Injury and Serum Biomarkers 426 24.3 Amylase and Lipase: Sensitivity and Specificity as Biomarkers of Pancreatic Injury 427 24.4 Pancreas Selective microRNAs as Circulating Biomarkers 428 24.4.1 Pancreas Selective Expression of microRNAs in Tissue 428 24.4.2 Circulating microRNAs in Models of Pancreatitis 429 24.4.3 Mouse Model of Acute Pancreatic Injury 430 24.4.4 Time Course of Pancreas-Selective microRNAs in the Serum of Mice Treated with Caerulein 430 24.4.5 Dose Response of Pancreas-Selective microRNAs in the Serum of Mice Treated with Caerulein 432 24.4.6 Serum Lipase and Amylase in Mice Treated with Caerulein 433 24.4.7 Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Analysis of Serum microRNAs, Lipase, and Amylase 433 24.5 Conclusions 433 24.6 Future Directions 434 Acknowledgments 434 Disclaimer 434 References 435 25 microRNA Profiling: Strategies and Challenges 437 Jiekun Xuan, Leming Shi and Lei Guo 25.1 miRNA Biogenesis 437 25.2 Challenges of miRNA Profiling 437 25.3 miRNA Profiling Methodologies 438 25.3.1 Northern Blotting 438 25.3.2 Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR 440 25.3.3 Microarray 441 25.3.4 Next Generation Sequencing 441 25.3.4.1 Roche/454 441 25.3.4.2 Illumina/Solexa 442 25.3.4.3 Life Technologies/SOLiD 442 25.3.4.4 cDNA Library Construction 443 25.3.4.5 Multiplexing 443 25.3.4.6 Bioinformatics Tools 444 25.4 Technical Challenges of Circulating miRNA Profiling 446 25.5 Quality Assessment and Data Normalization 446 Disclaimer 448 References 448 Index 455

Product Details

  • publication date: 25/10/2013
  • ISBN13: 9781118401613
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 486
  • ID: 9781118401613
  • weight: 1026
  • ISBN10: 1118401611

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