Microrobotics for Micromanipulation presents for the first time, in detail, the sector of robotics for handling objects of micrometer dimensions. At these dimensions, the behavior of objects is significantly different from the better known, higher scales, which leads us to implement solutions sometimes radically different from those most commonly used. This book details the behavior of objects at the micrometer scale and suitable robotics solutions, in terms of actuators, grippers, manipulators, environmental perception and microtechnology. This book includes corrected exercises, enabling engineers, students and researchers to familiarize themselves with this emerging area and to contribute to its development through scientific measures.
Nicolas Chaillet is Professor at the University of Franche-Comt and conducts research at the Institut Femto-ST. His research interests are in microrobotics and more generally in micromechatronics fields, particularly in micromanipulation and microassembly, microgrippers, smart materials, modeling and control of microactuators. St phane R gnier is Professor at the Institute of Intelligent Systems and Robotics (ISIR), Pierre and Marie Curie University, Paris, France. He has been head of the micromanipulation team at ISIR since 2001. His research interests are focused on micro and nanomanipulation, tele-operation and haptic feedback at the nanoscale, micromechatronics and biological cell characterization.
Foreword xvii Introduction xxi Chapter 1. The Physics of the Microworld 1 Michael GAUTHIER, Pierre LAMBERT and Stephane REGNIER 1.1. Introduction 1 1.2.Details of the microworld 4 1.3.Surface forces 8 1.4.Contact forces 40 1.5. Experimental analysis of forces for micromanipulation 48 1.6.Forces in liquidmedia 60 1.7. Friction and roughness 78 1.8.Relevant parameters and indicators 85 1.9.Exercises 88 1.10.List of symbols 95 Chapter 2. Actuators for Microrobotics 99 Nicolas CHAILLET, Moustapha HAFEZ and Pierre LAMBERT 2.1. Introduction 99 2.2.Principles of motion and guiding 100 2.3.Classification of actuators 111 2.4.Piezoelectric actuators 113 2.5.Electrostatic actuators 126 2.6.Thermal actuators 141 2.7.Electro-activepolymers 160 2.8.Magneto-/electrorheologicalfluids 165 2.9.Summary 170 2.10.Suppliers of active materials 170 2.11.Exercises 173 Chapter 3. Microhandling and Micromanipulation Strategies 179 Michael GAUTHIER, Pierre LAMBERT and Stephane REGNIER 3.1. Introduction 179 3.2. Contact-free micromanipulation and positioning 180 3.3. Contact-based micromanipulation and positioning 197 3.4.Release strategies 220 3.5.Summary 230 3.6.Conclusion 234 3.7.Exercises 234 Chapter 4. Architecture of a Micromanipulation Station 243 Joel AGNUS, Mehdi BOUKALLEL, Cedric CLEVY, Sounkalo DEMBELE and Stephane REGNIER 4.1. Introduction 243 4.2.Kimenatics 244 4.3.Visual perception 261 4.4.Force sensing 283 4.5. Introduction to sensor-based linear multivariable control 294 4.6. Application to automation and remote operation for micromanipulation tasks 300 4.7.Environmental control 318 4.8.Applications 324 4.9.Conclusion 334 4.10.Exercises 334 Chapter 5. Microtechnologies and Micromanipulation 335 Lionel BUCHAILLOT 5.1. Silicon surface machining processes 335 5.2.Early demonstrators 343 5.3. Standard processes and fabrication examples 346 5.4.Alternative surface machining processes 352 5.5.Co-integrationwith electronics 356 5.6.Consistency of surface micromachining 360 5.7.Conclusion 367 Chapter 6. Future Prospects 369 Philippe LUTZ and Stephane REGNIER 6.1.Micromachining 369 6.2.Nanomanipulation 395 Chapter 7. Solutions to Exercises 415 7.1.Chapter 1 415 7.2.Chapter 2 423 7.3.Chapter 3 429 7.4.Chapter 4 443 Bibliography 447 List of Authors 481 Index 483