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Modern Measurements: Fundamentals and Applications

Modern Measurements: Fundamentals and Applications

By: Paolo Carbone (editor), Marcantonio Catelani (editor), Alessandro Ferrero (editor), Dario Petri (editor)Hardback

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Description

This book is a collection of chapters linked together by a logical framework aimed at exploring the modern role of the measurement science in both the technically most advanced applications and in everyday life Provides a unique methodological approach to understanding modern measurementsImportant methods and devices are presented in a synthetic and easy-to-understand wayIncludes end-of-chapter exercises and solutions

About Author

Alessandro Ferrero is a Professor at the Polytechnic University of Milan. He is a Fellow of the IEEE. Dario Petri is a Professor at the University of Trento. He is a Fellow of the IEEE. Paolo Carbone is a Professor at the University of Perugia. He is a Fellow of the IEEE and editor-in-chief of the international journal, ACTA IMEKO. Marcantonio Catelani is a Professor at the University of Florence. He is a member of the IEEE and Chair of IMEKO TC10 Technical diagnostics.

Contents

PREFACE xv ACRONYMS xviiI FUNDAMENTALS 11 MEASUREMENT MODELS AND UNCERTAINTY 3Alessandro Ferrero and Dario Petri1.1 Introduction 31.2 Measurement and Metrology 41.3 Measurement Along the Centuries 51.3.1 Measurement in Ancient Greece 61.3.2 Measurement in the Roman Empire 61.3.3 Measurement in the Renaissance Period 71.3.4 Measurement in the Modern Age 81.3.5 Measurement Today 91.4 Measurement Model 101.4.1 A First Measurement Model 111.4.2 A More Complex Measurement Model 161.4.3 Final Remarks 191.5 Uncertainty in Measurement 201.5.1 The Origin of the Doubt 211.5.2 The Different Effects on the Measurement Result 231.5.3 The Final Effect 251.6 Uncertainty Definition and Evaluation 271.6.1 The Error Concept and Why it Should be Abandoned 281.6.2 Uncertainty Definition: The GUM Approach 291.6.3 Evaluating Standard Uncertainty 311.6.4 The Combined Standard Uncertainty 351.7 Conclusions 39Further Reading 40References 41Exercises 412 THE SYSTEM OF UNITS AND THE MEASUREMENT STANDARDS 47Franco Cabiati2.1 Introduction 472.2 Role of the Unit in the Measurement Process 482.3 Ideal Structure of a Unit System 502.4 Evolution of the Unit Definition 522.5 The SI System of Units 532.6 Perspectives of Future SI Evolution 592.7 Realization of Units and Primary Standards 622.7.1 Meter Realization and Length Standards 652.7.2 Kilogram Realization and Mass Standards: Present Situation 662.7.3 Kilogram Realization: Future Perspective 672.7.4 Realization of the Second and Time Standards 692.7.5 Electrical Unit Realizations and Standards: Present Situation 712.7.6 Electrical Units Realization and Standards: Future Perspective 762.7.7 Kelvin Realization and Temperature Standards: Present Situation 782.7.8 Kelvin Realization and Temperature Standards: Future Perspective 792.7.9 Mole Realization: Present Situation 802.7.10 Mole Realization: Future Perspective 812.7.11 Candela Realization and Photometric Standards 822.8 Conclusions 83Further Reading 83References 84Exercises 843 DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING IN MEASUREMENT 87Alessandro Ferrero and Claudio Narduzzi3.1 Introduction 873.2 Sampling Theory 883.2.1 Sampling and Fourier Analysis 893.2.2 Band-Limited Signals 923.2.3 Interpolation 953.3 Measurement Algorithms for Periodic Signals 963.3.1 Sampling Periodic Signals 973.3.2 Estimation of the RMS Value 993.4 Digital Filters 1023.5 Measuring Multi-Frequency Signals 1063.5.1 Finite-Length Sequences 1073.5.2 Discrete Fourier Transform 1113.5.3 Uniform Window 1133.5.4 Spectral Leakage 1143.5.5 Leakage Reduction by the Use of Windows 1163.6 Statistical Measurement Algorithms 1193.7 Conclusions 120Further Reading 121References 122Exercises 1224 AD AND DA CONVERSION 125Niclas Bjorsell4.1 Introduction 1254.2 Sampling 1254.2.1 Quantization 1264.2.2 Sampling Theorem 1294.2.3 Signal Reconstruction 1304.2.4 Anti-Alias Filter 1334.3 Analog-to-Digital Converters 1334.3.1 Flash ADCs 1334.3.2 Pipelined ADCs 1344.3.3 Integrating ADCs 1344.3.4 Successive Approximation Register ADCs 1354.4 Critical ADC Parameters 1354.4.1 Gain and Offset 1364.4.2 Integral and Differential Non-linearity 1374.4.3 Total Harmonic Distortion and Spurious-Free Dynamic Range 1394.4.4 Effective Number of Bits 1394.5 Sampling Techniques 1394.5.1 Oversampling 1394.5.2 Sigma-Delta, 1404.5.3 Dither 1414.5.4 Time-Interleaved 1424.5.5 Undersampling 1424.5.6 Harmonic Sampling 1434.5.7 Equivalent-Time Sampling 1434.5.8 Model-Based Post-correction 1444.6 DAC 1444.6.1 Binary-Weighted 1444.6.2 Kelvin Divider 1454.6.3 Segmented 1454.6.4 R-2R 1454.6.5 PWM DAC 1454.7 Conclusions 146Further Reading 146References 146Exercises 1475 BASIC INSTRUMENTS: MULTIMETERS 149Daniel Slomovitz5.1 Introduction 1495.2 History 1505.3 Main Characteristics 1535.3.1 Ranges 1535.3.2 Number of Digits and Resolution 1555.3.3 Accuracy 1585.3.4 Loading Effects 1595.3.5 Guard 1605.3.6 Four Terminals 1615.3.7 Accessories 1625.3.8 AC Measurements 1645.3.9 Safety 1675.3.10 Calibration 1705.3.11 Selection 1715.4 Conclusions 171Further Reading 172References 172Exercises 1736 BASIC INSTRUMENTS: OSCILLOSCOPES 175Jorge Fernandez Daher6.1 Introduction 1756.2 Types of Waveforms 1766.2.1 Sinewave 1766.2.2 Square or Rectangular Wave 1766.2.3 Triangular or Sawtooth Wave 1766.2.4 Pulses 1776.3 Waveform Measurements 1776.3.1 Amplitude 1776.3.2 Phase Shift 1776.3.3 Period and Frequency 1776.4 Types of Oscilloscopes 1776.5 Oscilloscope Controls 1816.5.1 Vertical Controls 1836.5.2 Horizontal Controls 1846.5.3 Trigger System 1856.5.4 Display System 1876.6 Measurements 1886.6.1 Peak-to-Peak Voltage 1886.6.2 RMS Voltage 1886.6.3 Rise Time 1886.6.4 Fall Time 1886.6.5 Pulse Width 1886.6.6 Period 1906.6.7 Frequency 1906.6.8 Phase Shift Measurements 1906.6.9 Mathematical Functions 1906.7 Performance Characteristics 1916.7.1 Bandwidth 1916.7.2 Rise Time 1916.7.3 Channels 1936.7.4 Vertical Resolution 1936.7.5 Gain Accuracy 1936.7.6 Horizontal Accuracy 1936.7.7 Record Length 1936.7.8 Update Rate 1946.7.9 Connectivity 1956.8 Oscilloscope Probes 1956.8.1 Passive Probes 1966.8.2 Active Probes 1976.9 Using the Oscilloscope 1996.9.1 Grounding 1996.9.2 Calibration 1996.10 Conclusions 199Further Reading 200References 200Exercises 2017 FUNDAMENTALS OF HARD AND SOFT MEASUREMENT 203Luca Mari, Paolo Carbone and Dario Petri7.1 Introduction 2037.2 A Characterization of Measurement 2067.2.1 Measurement as Value Assignment 2067.2.2 Measurement as Process Performed by a Metrological System 2097.2.3 Measurement as Process Conveying Quantitative Information 2097.2.4 Measurement as Morphic Mapping 2107.2.5 Measurement as Mapping on a Given Reference Scale 2137.2.6 Measurement as Process Conveying Objective and Inter-Subjective Information 2157.2.7 The Operative Structure of Measurement 2167.2.8 A Possible Definition of Measurement 2197.2.9 Hard Measurements and Soft Measurements 2207.2.10 Multidimensional Properties 2227.3 A Conceptual Framework of the Structure of Measurement 2237.3.1 Goal Setting 2257.3.2 Modeling 2287.3.3 Design 2417.3.4 Execution: Setup, Data Acquisition, Information Extraction and Reporting 2437.3.5 Interpretation 2457.4 An Application of the Measurement Structure Framework: Assessing Versus Measuring Research Quality 2467.4.1 Motivations for Research Quality Measurement 2467.4.2 Measurement Goal Definition 2477.4.3 Modeling 2507.4.4 Design 2527.4.5 Execution 2547.4.6 Interpretation 2557.5 Conclusions 256Further Reading 257References 257Exercises 260II APPLICATIONS 2638 SYSTEM IDENTIFICATION 265Gerd Vandersteen8.1 Introduction 2658.2 A First Example: The Resistive Divider 2658.3 A First Trial of Estimators 2678.4 From Trial-and-Error to a General Framework 2688.4.1 Setting up the Estimator 2698.4.2 Uncertainty on the Estimates 2708.4.3 Model Validation 2718.4.4 Extracting the Noise Model 2748.5 Practical Identification Framework for Instrumentation and Measurements 2778.5.1 Dynamic Linear Time-Invariant (LTI) Systems 2778.5.2 From Linear to Nonlinear Systems 2808.5.3 Sine Fitting 2808.5.4 Calibration and Compensation Techniques 2828.6 Conclusions 282Further Reading 283References 283Exercises 2859 RELIABILITY MEASUREMENTS 287Marcantonio Catelani9.1 Introduction 2879.2 Brief Remarks on the Concept of Quality 2889.3 Reliability, Failure and Fault: Basic Concepts and Definitions 2889.4 Reliability Theory 2929.4.1 Reliability Models and Measures Related to Time to Failure 2929.4.2 Life Distributions 2989.4.3 Reliability Parameters 3009.4.4 The Bath-Tube Curve 3029.5 System Reliability Assessment 3039.5.1 Series Configuration 3049.5.2 Parallel Configuration 3059.5.3 k-out-of-n Configuration 3079.6 Analysis Techniques for Dependability 3109.6.1 Failure Modes and Effect Analysis 3119.6.2 Fault Tree Analysis 3129.7 Conclusions 313Further Reading 314References 314Exercises 31510 EMC MEASUREMENTS 317Carlo Carobbi10.1 Introduction 31710.2 Definitions and Terminology 31810.3 The Measuring Receiver 32110.3.1 Quasi-Peak Measuring Receivers 32110.3.2 Peak Measuring Receivers 32910.4 Conducted Emission Measurements 32910.4.1 The Artificial Mains Network 32910.4.2 The Current Probe 33210.5 Radiated Emission Measurements 33310.5.1 Antennas for the 9 kHz to 30 MHz Frequency Range 33410.5.2 Antennas for the Frequency Range Above 30 MHz 33510.5.3 Measurement Sites 33910.6 Immunity Tests 34310.6.1 Conducted Immunity Tests 34310.6.2 Radiated Immunity Tests 34610.7 Conclusions 347Further Reading 348References 348Exercises 351PROBLEM SOLUTIONS 353INDEX 371

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9781118171318
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 400
  • ID: 9781118171318
  • weight: 686
  • ISBN10: 1118171314

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