Modern Vibrational Spectroscopy & Micro-Spectroscopy: Theory, Instrumentation & Biomedical Applications

Modern Vibrational Spectroscopy & Micro-Spectroscopy: Theory, Instrumentation & Biomedical Applications

By: Max Diem (author)Hardback

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Modern Vibrational Spectroscopy and Micro-Spectroscopy: Theory, Instrumentation and Biomedical Applications unites the theory and background of conventional vibrational spectroscopy with the principles of microspectroscopy. It starts with basic theory as it applies to small molecules and then expands it to include the large biomolecules which are the main topic of the book with an emphasis on practical experiments, results analysis and medical and diagnostic applications. This book is unique in that it addresses both the parent spectroscopy and the microspectroscopic aspects in one volume. Part I covers the basic theory, principles and instrumentation of classical vibrational, infrared and Raman spectroscopy. It is aimed at researchers with a background in chemistry and physics, and is presented at the level suitable for first year graduate students. The latter half of Part I is devoted to more novel subjects in vibrational spectroscopy, such as resonance and non-linear Raman effects, vibrational optical activity, time resolved spectroscopy and computational methods. Thus, Part 1 represents a short course into modern vibrational spectroscopy. Part II is devoted in its entirety to applications of vibrational spectroscopic techniques to biophysical and bio-structural research, and the more recent extension of vibrational spectroscopy to microscopic data acquisition. Vibrational microscopy (or microspectroscopy) has opened entirely new avenues toward applications in the biomedical sciences, and has created new research fields collectively referred to as Spectral Cytopathology (SCP) and Spectral Histopathology (SHP). In order to fully exploit the information contained in the micro-spectral datasets, methods of multivariate analysis need to be employed. These methods, along with representative results of both SCP and SHP are presented and discussed in detail in Part II.

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Max Diem Northeastern University, USA

Contents

Preface xv Preface to 'Introduction to Modern Vibrational Spectroscopy' (1994) xix I MODERN VIBRATIONAL SPECTROSCOPY AND MICRO-SPECTROSCOPY: THEORY, INSTRUMENTATION AND BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS 1 I.1 Historical Perspective of Vibrational Spectroscopy 1 I.2 Vibrational Spectroscopy within Molecular Spectroscopy 2 References 4 1 Molecular Vibrational Motion 5 1.1 The concept of normal modes of vibration 6 1.2 The separation of vibrational, translational, and rotational coordinates 6 1.3 Classical vibrations in mass-weighted Cartesian displacement coordinates 7 1.4 Quantum mechanical description of molecular vibrations 13 1.4.1 Transition from classical to quantum mechanical description 13 1.4.2 Diatomic molecules: harmonic oscillator 14 1.4.3 Diatomic molecules: anharmonicity 19 1.4.4 Polyatomic molecules 20 1.5 Time-dependent description and the transition moment 22 1.5.1 Time-dependent perturbation of stationary states by electromagnetic radiation 22 1.5.2 The vibrational transition moment for absorption: harmonic diatomic molecules 25 1.5.3 The vibrational transition moment for absorption: anharmonic diatomic molecules 27 1.5.4 The vibrational transition moment for absorption: polyatomic molecules 30 1.5.5 Isotopic effects: diatomic molecules 31 1.6 Basic infrared and Raman spectroscopies 32 1.6.1 Infrared absorption spectroscopy 32 1.6.2 Raman (scattering) spectroscopy 35 1.7 Concluding remarks 38 References 38 2 Symmetry Properties of Molecular Vibrations 39 2.1 Symmetry operations and symmetry groups 40 2.2 Group representations 44 2.3 Symmetry representations of molecular vibrations 50 2.4 Symmetry-based selection rules for absorption processes 54 2.5 Selection rules for Raman scattering 56 2.6 Discussion of selected small molecules 57 2.6.1 Tetrahedral molecules: carbon tetrachloride, CCl4, and methane, CH4 57 2.6.2 Chloroform and methyl chloride 64 2.6.3 Dichloromethane (methylene chloride), CH2Cl2 67 2.6.4 Dichloromethane-d1 (methylene chloride-d1), CHDCl2 68 References 69 3 Infrared Spectroscopy 71 3.1 General aspects of IR spectroscopy 71 3.2 Instrumentation 73 3.2.1 Sources of infrared radiation: black body sources 73 3.2.2 Sources of infrared radiation: quantum-cascade lasers, nonlinear devices 75 3.2.3 Transfer optics 76 3.2.4 Color sorting devices: monochromators 76 3.2.5 Color encoding devices: interferometers 79 3.2.6 Detectors 82 3.2.7 Read-out devices 84 3.3 Methods in interferometric IR spectroscopy 84 3.3.1 General instrumentation 84 3.3.2 Optical resolution 86 3.3.3 Zero filling and fourier smoothing 86 3.3.4 Phase correction 88 3.3.5 Apodization 91 3.4 Sampling strategies 92 3.4.1 Transmission measurement 92 3.4.2 Specular reflection 94 3.4.3 Diffuse reflection 95 3.4.4 Attenuated total reflection 97 3.4.5 Infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) 99 3.4.6 Fourier transform photoacoustic spectroscopy (FT-PAS) 100 3.4.7 Planar array infrared spectroscopy (PA-IRS) 101 3.4.8 Two-dimensional FTIR 101 3.4.9 Infrared microspectroscopy 102 References 102 4 Raman Spectroscopy 103 4.1 General aspects of Raman spectroscopy 104 4.2 Polarizability 105 4.3 Polarization of Raman scattering 107 4.4 Dependence of depolarization ratios on scattering geometry 111 4.5 A comparison between Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy 114 4.6 Instrumentation for Raman spectroscopy 116 4.6.1 Sources 116 4.6.2 Dispersive Raman instrumentation and multichannel detectors 116 4.6.3 Interferometric Raman instrumentation 121 4.6.4 Raman microspectroscopy 122 References 122 5 A Deeper Look at Details in Vibrational Spectroscopy 123 5.1 Fermi resonance 124 5.2 Transition dipole coupling (TDC) 128 5.3 Group frequencies 129 5.4 Rot-vibrational spectroscopy 130 5.4.1 Classical rotational energy 130 5.4.2 Quantum mechanics of rotational spectroscopy 132 5.4.3 Rot-vibrational transitions 137 References 141 6 Special Raman Methods: Resonance, Surface-Enhanced, and Nonlinear Raman Techniques 143 6.1 Resonance Raman spectroscopy 144 6.2 Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) 146 6.3 Nonlinear Raman effects 149 6.3.1 Spontaneous (incoherent) nonlinear Raman effects 149 6.3.2 Coherent nonlinear effects 152 6.4 Continuous wave and pulsed lasers 159 6.4.1 Einstein coefficients and population inversion 160 6.4.2 Operation of a gas laser 162 6.4.3 Principles of pulsed lasers 163 6.4.4 Operation of pulsed lasers 163 6.5 Epilogue 164 References 164 7 Time-Resolved Methods in Vibrational Spectroscopy 167 7.1 General remarks 167 7.2 Time-resolved FT infrared (TR-FTIR) spectroscopy 168 7.2.1 Experimental aspects 168 7.2.2 Applications of TR-FTIR spectroscopy 169 7.3 Time-resolved Raman and resonance Raman (TRRR) spectroscopy 171 7.3.1 Instrumental aspects 171 7.3.2 Applications of TRRR 173 7.3.3 Heme group dynamic studies 173 7.3.4 Rhodopsin studies 174 References 175 8 Vibrational Optical Activity 177 8.1 Introduction to optical activity and chirality 177 8.2 Infrared vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) 179 8.2.1 Basic theory 179 8.2.2 Exciton theory of optical activity 180 8.3 Observation of VCD 181 8.4 Applications of VCD 185 8.4.1 VCD of biological molecules 185 8.4.2 Small molecule VCD 185 8.5 Raman optical activity 186 8.6 Observation of ROA 188 8.7 Applications of ROA 189 8.7.1 ROA of biological molecules 189 8.7.2 Small molecules ROA 190 References 190 9 Computation of Vibrational Frequencies and Intensities 193 9.1 Historical approaches to the computation of vibrational frequencies 193 9.2 Vibrational energy calculations 194 9.2.1 Classical approaches: the Wilson GF matrix method 194 9.2.2 Early computer-based vibrational analysis 197 9.3 Ab initio quantum-mechanical normal coordinate computations 197 9.4 Vibrational intensity calculations 198 9.4.1 Fixed partial charge method for infrared intensities 198 9.4.2 Quantum mechanical infrared and Raman intensities: localized molecular orbitals 200 9.4.3 The finite perturbation method 200 References 202 II BIOPHYSICAL AND MEDICAL APPLICATIONS OF VIBRATIONAL SPECTROSCOPY AND MICROSPECTROSCOPY 203 10 Biophysical Applications of Vibrational Spectroscopy 205 10.1 Introduction 205 10.2 Vibrations of the peptide linkage and of peptide models 206 10.2.1 Amino acids and the peptide linkage 206 10.2.2 The vibrational modes of the peptide linkage 206 10.3 Conformational studies of peptides and polyamino acids 210 10.4 Protein spectroscopy: IR, VCD, Raman, resonance Raman, and ROA spectra of proteins 215 10.5 Nucleic acids 219 10.5.1 Structure and function of nucleic acids 219 10.5.2 Phosphodiester vibrations 222 10.5.3 Ribose vibrations 222 10.5.4 Base vibrations 222 10.6 Conformational studies on DNA and DNA models using IR, Raman, and VCD spectroscopies 223 10.7 Lipids and phospholipids 227 10.8 Epilogue 231 References 231 11 Vibrational Microspectroscopy (MSP) 235 11.1 General remarks 235 11.2 General aspects of microscopy 236 11.3 Raman microspectroscopy (RA-MSP) 239 11.3.1 Dispersive (single point) systems 240 11.3.2 Micro-Raman imaging systems 241 11.4 CARS and FSRS microscopy 242 11.5 Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) 243 11.6 Infrared microspectroscopy (IR-MSP) 243 11.6.1 Fourier-transform infrared imaging systems 244 11.6.2 QCL-based systems 246 11.7 Sampling strategies for infrared microspectroscopy 247 11.7.1 Transmission measurement 247 11.7.2 Transflection measurement 247 11.7.3 Attenuated total reflection (ATR) 248 11.8 Infrared near-field microscopy 249 References 249 12 Data Preprocessing and Data Processing in Microspectral Analysis 251 12.1 General remarks 251 12.2 Data preprocessing 252 12.2.1 Cosmic ray filtering (Raman data sets only) 253 12.2.2 Linear wavenumber interpolation (Raman data sets only) 253 12.2.3 Conversion from transmittance to absorbance units (some infrared data sets) 253 12.2.4 Normalization 253 12.2.5 Noise reduction 254 12.2.6 Conversion of spectra to second derivatives 256 12.3 Reduction of confounding spectral effects 257 12.3.1 Reduction of water vapor contributions in cellular pixel spectra 258 12.3.2 Mie and resonance Mie scattering 258 12.3.3 Correction of dispersive band shapes 260 12.3.4 Standing wave effect 262 12.4 Unsupervised multivariate methods of data segmentation 263 12.4.1 Factor methods 264 12.4.2 Data segmentation by clustering methods 269 12.5 Supervised multivariate methods 272 12.5.1 Discussion of sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy 272 12.5.2 Soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) 273 12.5.3 Artificial neural networks (ANNs) 274 12.5.4 Support vector machines (SVMs) 275 12.5.5 Random forests (RFs) 276 12.5.6 Cross-validation 277 12.6 Summary of data processing for microspectral analysis 278 12.7 Two-dimensional correlation methods in infrared spectroscopy (2D-IR) 278 References 280 13 Infrared Microspectroscopy of Cells and Tissue in Medical Diagnostics 283 13.1 Introduction 283 13.2 Spectral histopathology (SHP) 284 13.2.1 Review of classical histopathology 284 13.2.2 Spectral methods in histopathology 285 13.2.3 Infrared absorption spectroscopy of cells and tissue: introductory comments 285 13.3 Methodology for SHP 287 13.3.1 General approach 287 13.3.2 Sequence of steps in classical histopathology 288 13.3.3 Sequence of steps for spectral histopathology 288 13.4 Applications of SHP for the classification of primary tumors 294 13.4.1 Cervical tissue and cervical cancer 294 13.4.2 Lung cancer 298 13.4.3 Prostate cancer 303 13.4.4 Breast cancer 304 13.5 Application of SHP toward the detection and classification of metastatic tumors 304 13.5.1 Detection of colon cancer metastases in lymph nodes 304 13.5.2 Detection of breast cancer metastases in lymph nodes 306 13.5.3 Detection and classification of brain metastases 307 13.6 Future prospects of SHP 309 13.7 Infrared spectral cytopathology (SCP) 310 13.7.1 Classical cytopathology 311 13.7.2 Spectral cytopathology 314 13.7.3 Methods for SCP 314 13.8 SCP results 316 13.8.1 Early results of SCP 316 13.8.2 Fixation studies 317 13.8.3 Spectral cytopathology of cervical mucosa 320 13.8.4 Spectral cytopathology of the oral mucosa 323 13.8.5 Spectral cytopathology of esophageal cells 326 13.9 SCP of cultured cells 328 13.9.1 Early SCP efforts and general results 328 13.9.2 SCP of cultured cells to study the effects of the cell cycle and of drugs on cells 328 13.10 Infrared spectroscopy of cells in aqueous media 331 13.11 Future potential of SCP 333 References 333 14 Raman Microspectroscopy of Cells and Tissue in Medical Diagnostics 339 14.1 Introduction 339 14.2 Experimental Consideration for Raman Microspectroscopy 341 14.3 High-Resolution Raman Spectral Cytopathology 343 14.3.1 Subcellular organization 343 14.3.2 Subcellular transport phenomena 345 14.4 Low-Resolution Raman SCP of Cultured Cells In Vitro 349 14.5 Raman SCP in Solution 352 14.5.1 Optical tweezing of cells in aqueous media 352 14.5.2 Cells trapped in microfluidic chips 353 14.5.3 Resonance Raman spectroscopy of erythrocytes 353 14.6 Raman Spectral Histopathology (Ra SHP) 354 14.7 In Vivo Raman SHP 356 14.8 Deep Tissue Raman SHP 357 14.8.1 Hard tissue diagnostics 357 14.8.2 Deep tissue imaging of breast tissue and lymph nodes 358 References 359 15 Summary and Epilogue 363 APPENDIX A The Particle in a Box: A Demonstration of Quantum Mechanical Principles for a Simple, One-Dimensional, One-Electron Model System 365 A.1 Definition of the Model System 365 A.2 Solution of the Particle-in-a-Box Differential Equation 367 A.3 Orthonormality of the Particle-in-a-Box Wavefunctions 370 A.4 Dipole-Allowed Transitions for the Particle in a Box 370 A.5 Real-World PiBs 371 APPENDIX B A summary of the Solution of the Harmonic Oscillator (Hermite) Differential Equation 373 APPENDIXC Character Tables for Chemically Important Symmetry Groups 377 C.1 The nonaxial groups 377 C.2 The Cn groups 377 C.3 The Dn groups 379 C.4 The Cn groups 379 C.5 The Dnh groups 382 C.6 The Dnd groups 384 C.7 The Sn groups 385 C.8 The cubic groups 386 C.9 The groups C , and D h for linear molecules 387 C.10 The icosahedral groups 388 APPENDIX D Introduction to Fourier Series, the Fourier Transform, and the Fast Fourier Transform Algorithm 389 D.1 Data Domains 389 D.2 Fourier Series 390 D.3 Fourier Transform 392 D.4 Discrete and Fast Fourier Transform Algorithms 393 References 395 APPENDIX E List of Common Vibrational Group Frequencies (cm-1) 397 APPENDIX F Infrared and Raman Spectra of Selected Cellular Components 399 Index 405

Product Details

  • publication date: 14/08/2015
  • ISBN13: 9781118824863
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 440
  • ID: 9781118824863
  • weight: 986
  • ISBN10: 1118824865

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