Part 1 Introduction: who are the Mongols?; Mongols and Tibetans; economies; nomads and barbarians; monsters; monsters today. Part 2 Race: westerners further describe and classify Mongols; the Kalmyks; Johann Friedrich Blumenbach; other Mongol accounts; Mongols in the 20th century; immigration and exclusion; conclusion. Part 3 Mongols as mental defectives: people with Trisomy 21 and the United States; language; "mongoloids" in literature; Dr. J.L.H. Down; "Kalmuc idiocy"; can degenerates degenerate?; conclusion. Part 4 The Mongol body: blue spots; the Mongolian eye. Part 5 Travellers in the deep dark heart of Asia: Roy Chapman Andrews; Owen Lattimore; two 18th-century travellers in Mongol areas; "you can't do that anymore"; A.D. Barnett; other westerners react to Mongol areas and Mongols; conclusion. Part 6 A fixation on the past - fiction, films and Mongolists: fiction; films; Mongolian studies. Part 7 Conclusion.