ANTIBODIES AS LABORATORY AND THERAPEUTIC REAGENS. Introduction: antibody specifity and diversity. Antibody specificity: protein structure. The immunoglobulin constant region: form and functions. The cells that make antibody. The basis of antibody specificity and diversity: unique genetic mechanisms. Polyclonal antisera. Monoclonal antibodies. The major differences between monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. Applications of antibodies in the laboratory. Therapeutic applications of antibodies. Improving on nature - antibody engineering. Replacing nature- antibodies from gene libraries. Conclusions. HYBRIDOMA TECHNOLOGY: MAKING MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES. Introduction. Theoretical basis. Cell culture. Screening assay. Immunization. Myeloma cells. Fusion protocol. Post-fusion care. Cloning. Cryopreservation. Specificity and isotyping. Myoplasma. Large scale antibody production. Antibody purification. Storage and quality control. ANTIBODY ENGINEERING. Introduction. Choice of antibody designs to suit specific applications. Chimeric and humanized whole antibodies. Single domain antigen binding fragments. Engineering antibody fragments. Expression of antibody fragments. Purification of scFv antibody fragments. Phage display. APPLICATIONS OF MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES TO THE STUDY OF MOLECULES IN SOLUTION. Introduction. ELISA (enzyme linked immuno-adsorbent assay). Protein epitope delineation. Assays of antibody-bound antigen. Immunoaffinity chromatography. Western blotting. Immunoprecipitation and radiolabel synthesis/processing. Immuno-organelle binding assays. APPLICATIONS OF MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES IN MICROBIOLOGY. Introduction. Diagnosing infection. Viruses. Mycoplasma and chlamydia. Applications in bacteriology. Parasitic and fungal infections. APPLICATIONS OF MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES TO THE STUDY OF CELLS AND TISSUES. Introduction. The complexity of cells: the human CD antigens illustrate the heterogeneity of cellular composition. Cell markers: identification and enumeration of specific cell types. Antibody-based cell separation. Antibody-based cell destruction or agglutination. Analysis of function. Tissue analysis.