In Mountain Mandalas Allan G. Grapard provides a thought-provoking history of one aspect of the Japanese Shugendo tradition in Kyushu, by focusing on three cultic systems: Mount Hiko, Usa-Hachiman, and the Kunisaki Peninsula. Grapard draws from a rich range of theorists from the disciplines of geography, history, anthropology, sociology, and humanistic geography and situates the historical terrain of his research within a much larger context.
This book includes detailed analyses of the geography of sacred sites, translations from many original texts, and discussions on rituals and social practices. Grapard studies Mount Hiko and the Kunisaki Peninsula, which was very influential in Japanese cultural and religious history throughout the ages. We are introduced to important information on archaic social structures and their religious traditions; the development of the cult to the deity Hachiman; a history of the interactions between Buddhism and local cults in Japan; a history of the Shugendo tradition of mountain religious ascetics, and much more.
Mountain Mandalas sheds light on important aspects of Japan's religion and culture, and will be of interest to all scholars of Shinto and Japanese religion. Extensive translations of source material can be found on the book's webpage.
Allan G. Grapard is Professor Emeritus in the Department of East Asian Languages and Cultural Studies at University of California, Santa Barbara, USA.
Illustrations Preface Organization of the Book Acknowledgements A Note on Translation and Text 1. Shugendo and the Production of Social Space Kyushu Island: an ignored world The Hachiman cult's nebulous origins Usa: from prehistoric village to cultic city Oracular pronouncements as divine directives The early Heian period: Iwashimizu Hachiman The Kunisaki Peninsula's links to Usa Mount Hiko 2. Geotyped and Chronotyped Social Spaces Hachiman's traveling icons Mount Hiko: of swords, meteors, dragons, and goshawks Waiting for dawn on Mount Hiko: the geotype and chronotype of heterotopia Mount Hiko's Sacred Perimeter: four corners and three dimensions Altitude and altered states of mind: creating a Dojo Mandala templates: divine planning Geotyped and chronotyped, encoded, mandalized bodies The visionary imperative 3. Festivities and Processions: Spatialities of Power Mount Hiko as a socio-ritualized space Mount Hiko's conflicts with Mount Homan and the Shogo-in monzeki Mount Hiko's ritual calendar The New Year's shusho tsuina rite: expel and invite The shusho goo rite: paper, pill, oath The kissho shugi rite: sanctioning power and rank Mountain sanctuaries awash in seawater: the shioitori rite For the birds: the Zokei goku rite The Matsue and Ondasai ritual festivities Mineiri: the mandalized peregrinations Mandalized itineraries Practices in the mountains The Daigyoji shrines and water Usa Hachiman's oracular spatialities Kunisaki: a much-disturbed heterotopia The geognostic realm of the lotus in Kunisaki Coursing through the peninsula 4. Shattered Bodies, Statues, and the Appeal of Truncated Memory Mount Hiko's quasi-destruction and fall into irrelevance Kunisaki: one breath away from the void of modernity Hachiman's return in disguise Afterword: From Spatialities to Dislocation Rays of light Glossary Notes Bibliography Index