Is Canada a country of equal and peacefully coexisting identities, working towards what Charles Taylor has called a 'post-industrial Sittlichkeit'? In this analysis of the history of Canadian diversity, Richard Day argues that no degree or style of state intervention can ever bring an end to tensions related to ethnocultural relations of power. Using Foucault's method of genealogical analysis and a theory of the state form derived from the works of Deleuze and Guattari, Day creates a framework for his exploration of the construction of human difference and its management over the years. He argues that Canada's multicultural policies are propelled by a fantasy of unity based on the nation-state model. Our legislation, policies, and practices do not move us towards equality and reciprocity, he reveals, because they are rooted in a European drive to manage and control diversity. Day challenges the notion that Canadian multiculturalism represents either progress beyond a history of assimilation and genocide or a betrayal of that very history that supports the dominance of Anglo-Canadians.
Only when English Canada is able to abandon its fantasy of unity, Day concludes, can the radical potential of multiculturalism politics be realized.
Richard J.F. Day is an assitant professor in the Department of Sociology at Queen's University.
* Introduction* The Problem of the Problem of Diversity* Terminological Issues* The Field of Canadian Diversity* Some Methodological Concerns* Canadian Diversity in State Policy* Canadian Diversity in Popular Culture* Canadian Diversity and the Academy* Identity, Identification, and the Desire for Recognition* Nation and State, Power and Resistance* Delimiting the Field* European Antecedents to the Problem of Canadian Diversity* How Difference Changes, How It Remains the Same* Herodotus, Father of Ethnography* Ancient Ionian Hellenism and the Destruction of the Inferior Other* Incorporation of the Other in Roman Imperialism* Early Christianity: The Missionary Urge* Renaissance Exploration and the New World 'Savage'* From Prehistory to History: A Summary of European Contributions to the Problem of Canadian Diversity* Two 'Canadian' Solutions to the Problem of Diversity* The First Others of the New World* Conversion and Extermination: The Cases of the Huron and the Iroquois* The coureurs de bois as a Repressed Hybrid Identity* The System of Difference in French Colonial Discourse* How Canada Became British* Ignorance and Extermination in the New Founde Landes* Microcontrol and Hybridity: The Hudson's Bay Company and the British Fur Trade* The Early Colonial History of Canadian Diversity* Repetition and Failure in British North America* The Conquest of New France* The Emergence of the Two Founding Races* Rational-Bureaucratic Tutelage: The Indian Problem under British Rule* Group Identity in British Canada* The Dominion of Canada and the Proliferation of Immigrant Otherness* Clearing the 'Empty' West* An Explosion of Racial Subject-Positions* Restoring Order: J.S. Woodsworth and the Great Chain of Race* Managing the Strangers within Our Gates: Assimilation, Transportation, Deportation, and Internment* Excluding the Strangers Without* Identity by Design in Early Twentieth-Century Canada* The Rise of the Mosaic Metaphor* Canadian Identity as an Emergent Phenomenon* The Canadian Mosaic as a Constrained Emergence Theory of Identity* Design, Designers, and the Social Sciences* WWII and the 'First Bureaucracy for Multiculturalism'* The Citizenship Machine* From Racial Assimilation to Cultural Integration* Unhappy Countriness: Multiculturalism as State Policy* The 'Liberalization' of Canadian Society* From Monopoly to Duopoly: The B & B Report* Multiculturalism in a Bilingual Framework as Strategic Simulation of Assimilation to the Other* Multiculturalism: Modern or Postmodern?* A Revaluation of Canadian Multiculturalism* A Critique of Kymlicka's Liberal Theory of Minority Rights* Charles Taylor and the Limits of Recognition* From Deep Diversity to Radical Imaginary Notes Bibliography Index