The widespread use of image, audio, and video data makes media content protection increasingly necessary and urgent. For maximum safety, it is no longer sufficient to merely control access rights. In order to fully protect multimedia data from piracy or unauthorized use, it must be secured through encryption prior to its transmission or distribution. Multimedia Content Encryption: Techniques and Applications presents the latest research results in this dynamic field.
The book begins with the history of multimedia encryption and then examines general performance requirements of encryption and fundamental encrypting techniques. It discusses common techniques of complete, partial, and compression-combined encryption; as well as the more specialized forms, including perception, scalable, and commutative encryption. In addition, the author reviews watermarking and joint fingerprint embedding and decryption. Later chapters discuss typical attacks on multimedia encryption, as well as the principles for designing secure algorithms and various applications. An exploration of open issues, up-and-coming topics, and areas for further research rounds out the coverage.
Shiguo Lian is the author or co-author of more than fifty peer-reviewed journal and conference articles covering topics of network security and multimedia content protection, including cryptography, secure P2P content sharing, digital rights management (DRM), encryption, watermarking, digital fingerprinting, and authentication. By following the techniques outlined in this book, users will be better able to protect the integrity of their multimedia data and develop greater confidence that their data will not be misappropriated.
Introduction Background Definition History Classification Book Organization References Performance Requirement of Multimedia Content Encryption Introduction Security Requirement Cryptographic Security Key Sensitivity Plaintext Sensitivity Ciphertext Randomness Perceptual Security Subjective Metric Objective Metric Security Level Compression Efficiency Encryption Efficiency Format Compliance Application Suitability Summary References Fundamental Techniques Introduction Cryptography Cipher Symmetric Cipher or Asymmetric Cipher Block Cipher or Stream Cipher Encryption Mode of Block Cipher ECB Mode CBC Mode CFB Mode OFB Mode CTR Mode Cryptanalysis Multimedia Compression Audio Compression Image Compression Video Compression Scalable Coding Multimedia Communication Transmission Network Application Scenarios Digital Watermarking Summary References Complete Encryption Definition of Complete Encryption Classification of Complete Encryption Encryption Algorithms for Raw Data or Compressed Data Raw Data Encryption Compressed Data Encryption Typical Encryption Algorithms Permutation Random Pixel Permutation Random Line Permutation Chaotic Map-Based Permutation Random Modulation Confusion-Diffusion Algorithm Partial DES Security and Efficiency Hardware Implementation Lightweight Encryption Performance Comparison Summary References Partial Encryption Definition of Partial Encryption Data Partitioning Part Selection Classification of Partial Encryption Partial Image Encryption Raw Image Encryption Partial Image Encryption during Compression Partial Encryption in Run-Length Coding Partial Encryption in Wavelet-Based Codec Partial Encryption of the Compressed Image Partial Audio Encryption Partial Video Encryption Encryption after Compression Encryption during Compression MPEG2 Video Encryption MPEG4 AVC/H.264 Video Encryption Performance Comparison Summary References Compression-Combined Encryption Definition of Compression-Combined Encryption Secure Huffman Coding Based on Random Huffman-Tree Permutation Secure Arithmetic Coding Based on Interval Permutation Secure Coding Based on Index Encryption Secure Fixed-Length Coding (FLC) Based on Index Encryption Secure Variable-Length Coding (VLC) Based on Index Encryption Secure Coding Based on Exp-Golomb Code Secure Coding Based on Huffman Code Random Coefficient Scanning Random Scanning in Wavelet Domain Random Scanning in DCT Domain Performance Comparison Summary References Perceptual Encryption Definition of Perceptual Encryption Perceptual Encryption Based on Bit-Plane Selection Bit-Plane Encryption in the Spatial Domain Bit-Plane Encryption in the DCT Domain Bit-Plane Encryption in the Wavelet Domain Perceptual Encryption Based on Frequency Band Selection Frequency Band Encryption in a DCT Block Frequency Band Encryption in the Wavelet Domain Performance Comparison Summary References Scalable Encryption Definition of Scalable Encryption Scalable Media Coding Layered Coding Layered and Progressive Coding Progressive Coding Scalable Coding Scalable Encryption Algorithms Scalable Encryption for Layered Coding Scalable Encryption for Layered and Progressive Coding Scalable Encryption for Progressive Coding Scalable Encryption for Scalable Coding Performance Comparison Summary References Commutative Watermarking and Encryption Definition of Commutative Watermarking and Encryption CWE Based on Partial Encryption The General Architecture The Improved Scheme Selection of the Encryption Part and Watermarking Part CWE Based on Homomorphic Operations The CWE Scheme Based on XOR Operation The CWE Scheme Based on Module Addition Performance Comparison Summary References Joint Fingerprint Embedding and Decryption Definition of Joint Fingerprint Embedding and Decryption Typical JFD Schemes The JFD Scheme Based on Broadcast Encryption The JFD Scheme Based on Codeword Modification The JFD Scheme Based on Partial Decryption The JFD Scheme Based on Index Modification The JFD Scheme Based on Homomorphic Operations Performance Comparison Summary References Typical Attacks on Multimedia Encryption Security Requirement of Multimedia Encryption Cryptographic Attacks Flaws in Perceptual Security Level Encryption in Run-Level Coding Statistical Model-Based Attack on Sign Encryption Replacement Attack Replacement Attack on Bit-Plane Encryption Replacement Attack on Frequency Band Encryption Replacement Attack on Intra-Prediction Mode Encryption Summary References Some Principles for Secure Multimedia Encryption Shannon's Information Theory of Secrecy System Principles for Secure Complete Encryption General Models of Complete Encryption Encryption Before or After Compression Example of Secure Complete Encryption Random Packet Partitioning Packet Encryption Decryption Encryption Efficiency Principles for Secure Partial Encryption Model of Partial Encryption Principles for Secure Encryption Cryptographic Security Parameter Independence Perceptual Security Summary of the Principles and Means Example Based on JPEG2000 Image Encryption Parameter Sensitivity Parameter Independence Selection of the Cipher The Partial Encryption Scheme Performance Evaluation Principles for Secure Compression-Combined Encryption Model of Compression-Combined Encryption Scheme Relation between Compression Ratio and Security Equivalent Compression-Encryption Independent Scheme Analysis on Existing Compression-Combined Encryption Schemes Tradeoff between Compression Ratio and Security The Equivalent Compression-Encryption Independent Scheme Summary References Multimedia Encryption in Typical Applications Secure Media Player Secure Media Streaming Secure Media Preview Secure Media Transcoding Secure Media Distribution Digital Rights Management References Open Issues Perceptual Security Lightweight Implementation Contradiction between Format Compliance and Upgrade Ability to Support Direct Operations Key Management Combination between Encryption and Other Means Summary