One of the big challenges that today's growing cities are coping with is the delivery of effective and sustainable waste management, together with a good sanitation. This volume provides a comprehensive presentation and overall picture of municipal solid waste management, including waste generation and characterization, waste reduction and recycling, waste collection and transfer and waste disposal. It analyses how these aspects are practiced in developing and developed countries.
The traditional method of disposal - composting at different scales - is discussed, including the benefits of compost. 'Energy-from-waste-technologies' are amply discussed, with comparisons between developed and developing countries, and with parameters and conditions for successful operation of these technologies. Moreover, the construction and operational aspects of landfills - to maintain environmental safety and the health of the residents nearby - are described in depth. In addition to a chapter with case studies of several countries and cities in every continent, a special chapter is dedicated to municipal solid waste management in India, including legal provisions, financial resources, private participation and citizens' rights and obligations, and the status in three major cities.
By presenting different elements that constitute a sustainable procedure, including the recovery of clean energy, this volume will serve as a guide to students in science and engineering and to key players in waste management services and policies.
Dr. P. Jayarama Reddy is an energy consultant to the solar photovoltaic industry and has made it his mission to promote the application of renewable energy initiatives. He serves as a board member on several international renewable energy companies that work on solar module fabrication, power generation from biomass, and municipal solid waste. Dr. Reddy is retired as a professor of Physic and has devoted a large part of his life to crystal physics and the application of advanced materials in the semi-conductor and thin film industry. He has worked in the various big research laboratories, under which those at Cornell University (US), Imperial College (UK), Charles University (Czech Rep.) and Stuttgart University (Germany). The recipient of several awards and a Fellow of the Institute of Physics (UK), Dr. Reddy has published a number of books on renewable energy, including 'Science and Technology of Photovoltaics' (BS Publications / CRC Press).
Foreword Preface Acknowledgement 1. BASICS 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Types of Solid Waste 1.3 Waste Management Concepts 1.4 Health & Environmental Impacts 1.5 Global Warming 1.6 Source Reduction 2. WASTE GENERATION AND CHARACTERISATION 2.1 Waste Generation and Composition 2.2 Waste Characterization 3. WASTE REDUCTION AND RECYCLING 3.1 Recycling 3.2 Status in Developing Countries 3.3 Status in Developed Countries 3.4 Case of Plastics 3.4.1 Nature of Plastics 3.4.2 Recycling of Plastic Waste 3.5 Recovery and Recycling of E-waste 3.6 Waste Trading 3.7 Waste Picking as a Livelihood 4. WASTE COLLECTION AND TRANSFER 4.1 Waste Collection in Developing Countries 4.2 Waste Collection in Developed Countries 4.3 Waste Processing and Disposal 5. COMPOSTING 5.1 Process 5.2 Benefits 5.3 Composting technologies 5.3.1 Backyard or a Home Composting 5.3.2 Vermi Composting 5.3.3 Aereted (Turned) Windrow Composting 5.3.4 Aereted Static Pile Composting 5.3.5. In-Vessel Composting 5.4 Biowaste Composting 5.5 Composting challenges 5.6 Composting in Developing countries 5.7 Composting in Developed countries 6. ENERGY FROM WASTE 6.1 Introduction 6.1.1 Assessment of Energy Recovery Potential 6.1.2 Environmental Impacts of the Technologies 6.2 Thermal Processing 6.2.1 Combustion/ Incineration 6.2.2 Pyrolysis 6.2.3 Gasification 6.2.4 Plasma Arc Gasification 6.3 Biochemical Processing 6.3.1 Anaerobic Digestion (Biomethanation) 6.3.2 Mechanical Biological Treatment 6.3.3 Fermentation 6.4 Chemical Processing: Esterification 6.5 Recent Developments in WTE Technologies 6.6 Planning and Execution of WTE Technologies 6.7 Applications of Industrial Wastes 7. LANDFILLING 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Environmental Impact Study 7.3 Landfill Construction 7.4 Decomposition in the Landfill 7.5 Benefits 7.6 Recovery and uses of Landfill Gas 7.7 Associated Activities 7.8 Health and Environmental Impacts 7.9 An Example 7.10 Landfills in Developing Countries 7.11 Landfills in Developed Countries 8. MSW MANAGEMENT IN INDIA 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Analysis of MSW 8.3 Storage and Collection of MSW 8.4 Transfer Stations and Transportation 8.5 MSW Treatment/Disposal 8.5.1 Landfilling 8.5.2 Composting 8.5.3 Anerobic Digestion (Biomethanation) 8.5.4 Incineration 8.5.5 Gasification 8.5.6 RDF Plants 8.6 Recovery of Recyclable Materials 8.7 Healthcare Waste Treatment 8.8 Hazardous Waste Management 8.9 E-waste management 8.10 Rules, Legislation and Legal Provisions 8.11 Financial Resources 8.12 Future Scenario 9. PRIVATE SECTOR PARTICIPATION IN INDIA 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Options in PSP Arrangement 9.3 Examples of PSP in MSW Services 9.4 Important Contractual Issues 9.5 Survey on Privatisation of MSW Services 9.6 Role of NGOs and CBOs 9.7 Initiatives by Some State Governments 9.8 Case Studies 10. MSW MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING - GLOBAL EXAMPLES 10.1 Asia 10.2 Africa 10.3 Latin America 10.4 Europe 10.5 North America ANNEXURES A1 Waste generation and Management Data by Country A2 Waste-to-Energy Facilities in USA A3 Waste-to-Energy Plants Operating in India A4 Composting Plants in India A5 Waster-to-Energy Status in China A6 International Agreement and Commitments to Environmentally Sound Management of Waste A7 Types of Biogas Plants A8 Zero-waste approach A9 Integrated Solid Waste Management A10 Door to Door Refuse/Garbage Collection System in Surat Municipal Corporation City - A Project in Best Practice A 11 Centralised Co-digestion of Multiple Substrates: (CAD) Example of Denmark Glossary References