The existing literature on music in Soviet society primarily discusses specific works or composers rather than the context within which music was produced. This book, with the assistance of extensive archival work examines the relationship of art and politics in the Soviet Union during the early 1930s Stalinist phase. This study reveals that during the early 1930s composers were able to organize their work without direct involvement of either the Party or the state organs. The Composers' Union concentrated on furthering its members' financial position and composing as a profession became established. The issues of housing, salary and copyrights were engaged by composers while the Party mostly disregarded the intensification of the control of the Soviet musical life. Although the introduction of the Committee on Artistic Affairs intensified the political ties between music and the Party politics from 1936 onwards, composers managed to still preserve their own interests. Even more surprising is the fact that the years of terror (1936-1938) almost passed the Composers' Union by without victims, whereas the Writers' Union suffered almost as heavily as the state and Party organs.