Over ten million Muslims live in Western Europe. Since the early 1990s, and especially after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, vexing policy questions have emerged about the religious rights of native-born and immigrant Muslims. Britain has struggled over whether to give state funding to private Islamic schools. France has been convulsed over Muslim teenagers wearing the hijab in public schools. Germany has debated whether to grant 'public-corporation' status to Muslims. And each state is searching for policies to ensure the successful incorporation of practicing Muslims into liberal democratic society. This 2004 book analyzes state accommodation of Muslims' religious practices in Britain, France, and Germany, first examining three major theories: resource mobilization, political-opportunity structure, and ideology. It then proposes an additional explanation, arguing that each nation's approach to Muslims follows from its historically based church-state institutions.
Professor Joel S. Fetzer teaches European and immigration politics at Pepperdine University. His research has been funded by the German Marshall Foundation of the United States, the MacArthur Foundation, the Friedrich Ebert Foundation, and the Yale Center for International and Area Studies. He is the author of numerous articles and book chapters on comparative immigration politics and on religion and political behavior. His most recent book is Public Attitudes toward Immigration in the United States, France, and Germany (Cambridge 2000). J. Christopher Soper is an Endowed Professor of Political Science and Chair of the Social Science Division at Pepperdine University. A graduate of both Yale Divinity School and Yale's PhD program in political science, Professor Soper has written extensively on church-state relations and religion and politics in Europe and the United States. Recipient of grants from the American Political Science Association and Society for the Scientific Study of Religion, he is author of Evangelical Christianity in the United States and Great Britain (Macmillan 1994) and co-author of The Challenge of Pluralism: Church and State in Five Democracies (Rowman and Littlefield 1997).
List of figures and tables; Preface; 1. Explaining the accommodation of Muslim religious practices in Western Europe; 2. Britain: establishment religion and Islamic schools; 3. France: Laicite and the hijab; 4. Germany: multiple establishment and public corporation status; 5. Public attitudes toward state accommodation of Muslims' religious practices; 6. Integration and Muslim practice; Appendix; Glossary; Bibliography; Index.