The great Buddhist philosopher Nagarjuna's writings on emptiness, "sunyata", have profoundly influenced Indian, Tibetan and Chinese Buddhism for nearly 2000 years. The central statement of his thought is found in his "Middle Stanzas". The "Middle Treatise" (T. 1564) here translated in full into English, is Kumarajiva's Chinese version of Nagarjuna's "Middle Stanzas" with the commentary, attributed to the monk "Blue Eyes" (Pingala, Vimalaksa), which exists only in the Chinese Buddhist canon. The introductory chapters set the "Treatise" in context within the Sino-Japanese Buddhist tradition, introduce Madhyamika ideas found in the "Middle Treatise", and provide a detailed commentary on the "Treatise" for the modern reader, discussing each chapter and clarifying the argument of the "Treatise". The translation of all 27 chapters of the "Middle Treatise" forms the heart of the work, while the extensive notes to the translation contain more discussion and specialized information, including many of the Chinese terms found in the Treatise. The authorship of the "Middle Treatise" is considered in an appendix.