In grades 3-5, students extend their understanding of place value, larger whole numbers, fractions and decimals. They develop an understanding of multiplication and division, mastering and applying basic facts. Concrete materials can help students represent and reinforce these important concepts. Activities in this book invite students to use fraction circles to compare fractions and dot arrays to explore multiplication and the distributive property. The authors present many other hands-on approaches, including the use of work mats, open number lines, multiplication ""chains"" and games with spinners.Numbers and the operations that we perform with them are the starting points for all mathematics. Accordingly, Principles and Standards for School Mathematics makes the Number and Operations Standard first among the five Content Standards and gives it centrality across the mathematics curriculum from prekindergarten through grade 12.The Navigations Series translates Principles and Standards for School Mathematics into action. Each book includes practical, teacher-tested activities and a supplemental CD-ROM that features applets for students' use and resources for teachers' professional development.