Although, within neurosonology, study of both the extracranial and the intracranial circulation began at least 15 years ago, it is only in recent years that ultrasound evaluation of cerebral veins and cerebral venous hemodynamics has attracted wider attention. Nevertheless, the huge variability in venous outflow pathways in normal subjects means that the potential usefulness of this examination is still often neglected. This atlas provides concise descriptions of the main normal and pathological ultrasound features of the cerebral venous circulation for neurosonologists and clinicians. It is designed as a practical tool that will be of assistance in everyday practice in the ultrasound lab and will improve the knowledge of sonologists and the reliability of venous ultrasound studies. The multimedia format, with detailed images, explanatory videos, and short, targeted descriptions, ensures that information is clearly conveyed and that users will become fully acquainted with the variability of normal findings of venous examinations. The atlas will be of value both to trainees in this field of ultrasound and to neurosonologists who are beginning to perform venous examinations in addition to arterial extra- and intracranial examinations.
Part I Extracranial veins.- 1 Ultrasound machine: the significance of venous preset.- 2 Ultrasound anatomy and how to do the examination.- 3 Postural changes and activation tests.- 4 Main pathological pictures with ultrasound.- Part II Intracranial veins.- 5 Ultrasound machine: the significance of venous preset.- 6 Ultrasound anatomy and how to do the examination.- 7 Main pathological pictures with ultrasound.- 8 Global hemodynamic evaluation and outflow variability.- 9 Imaging-fusion technology for studying intracranial veins.