Respiratory support techniques for treating respiratory failure - including oxygen therapy, non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) - are used in a variety of healthcare settings, which include intensive care units, high dependency units, respiratory wards and the community. In response to national guidelines there are growing numbers of patients being considered for non-invasive respiratory support techniques, both as a short and long term treatment, resulting in an increasing number of healthcare professionals requiring knowledge and skills to provide care. Written for qualified healthcare professionals with experience of caring for patients with respiratory conditions, this text provides a practical guide to oxygen therapy, NIV and CPAP, clearly defining how and when the various treatments are used and including ideas on developing protocols to support practice.
Glenda Esmond is Lecturer in Respiratory Nursing, City University. Christine Mikelsons is Lecturer in Physiotherapy, University of Hertfordshire.
Contributors. 1 Clinical Management of Respiratory Failure ( John Hurst ). What is respiratory failure? What are the causes of respiratory failure? The pathophysiology of respiratory failure. The management of respiratory failure. Assessment of a patient with respiratory failure. Diagnostic investigations. Summary. Case studies. References. 2 Arterial Blood Gas Analysis ( With contribution from Maura McElligott and Sandra Gallacher ). Acid-base physiology. Non-invasive monitoring for respiratory failure. Invasive monitoring for respiratory failure. Case studies. References. 3 Oxygen Therapy. Hypoxaemic (Type I) respiratory failure. Hypercapnic (Type II) respiratory failure. Delivery of supplemental oxygen. Acute oxygen therapy. Home oxygen therapy. Ambulatory oxygen therapy. Travelling with oxygen. References. 4 Non-Invasive Ventilation. Indications: acute use. Indications: long-term use. Indications: palliation. Contraindications. Application. Choosing equipment (interfaces). Prevention of complications. Troubleshooting. References. 5 Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP). CPAP for the treatment of Type I respiratory failure. CPAP for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome. Other forms of treatment. References. 6 Setting Up Respiratory Support Services. Non-invasive ventilation. Home oxygen. Home CPAP for sleep apnoea. References. 7 Ethics. Principle-based approach to ethical decision making. End-of-life decisions. Acts and omissions. Case studies. Legal cases to support decision making. Professional responsibility in ethical decision making. References. Legal references. Index.