Oats Nutrition and Technology: Heart Health and Beyond

Oats Nutrition and Technology: Heart Health and Beyond

By: YiFang Chu (editor)Hardback

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Description

A considerable amount of research has emerged in recent years on the science, technology and health effects of oats but, until now, no book has gathered this work together. Oats Nutrition and Technology presents a comprehensive and integrated overview of the coordinated activities of nutritionists, plant scientists, food scientists, policy makers, and the private sector in developing oat products for optimal health. Readers will gain a good understanding of the value of best agricultural production and processing practices that are important in the oats food system. The book reviews agricultural practices for the production of oat products, the food science involved in the processing of oats, and the nutrition science aimed at understanding and advancing the health effects of oats and how they can affect nutrition policies. There are individual chapters that summarize oat breeding and processing, the many bioactive compounds that oats contain, and their health benefits. With respect to the latter, the health benefits of oats and oat constituents on chronic diseases, obesity, gut health, metabolic syndromes, and skin health are reviewed. The book concludes with a global summary of food labelling practices that are particularly relevant to oats. Oats Nutrition and Technology offers in-depth information about the life cycle of oats for nutrition, food and agricultural scientists and health practitioners interested in this field. It is intended to provoke thought and stimulate readers to address the many research challenges associated with the oat life cycle and food system.

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About Author

Dr YiFang Chu is with Quaker Oats Center of Excellence, PepsiCo R&D Nutrition, Barrington, IL, USA

Contents

List of Contributors xi Preface xv Acknowledgements xvii PART I: INTRODUCTION 1 Introduction: Oat Nutrition, Health, and the Potential Threat of a Declining Production on Consumption 3 Penny Kris-Etherton, Chor San Khoo, and YiFang Chu 1.1 A landmark health claim 3 1.2 The growing interest in oats and health 4 1.3 Declining production poses threats to the growth of oat intake 5 References 6 PART II: OAT BREEDING, PROCESSING, AND PRODUCT PRODUCTION 2 Breeding for Ideal Milling Oat: Challenges and Strategies 9 Weikai Yan, Judith Fregeau-Reid, and Jennifer Mitchell Fetch 2.1 Introduction 9 2.2 Breeding for single traits: Genotype-by-environment interactions 11 2.3 Breeding for multiple traits: Undesirable trait associations 19 2.4 Strategies of breeding for an ideal milling oat 25 2.5 Discussion 28 Acknowledgements 32 References 32 3 Food Oat Quality Throughout the Value Chain 33 Nancy Ames, Camille Rhymer, and Joanne Storsley 3.1 Introduction: Oat quality in the context of the value chain 33 3.2 Physical oat quality 36 3.3 Nutritional oat quality 41 3.4 Agronomic factors affecting physical and nutritional quality 46 3.5 Oat end-product quality 47 3.6 Mycotoxins 58 3.7 Summary 59 Acknowledgements 60 References 60 PART III: OAT NUTRITION AND CHEMISTRY 4 Nutritional Comparison of Oats and Other Commonly Consumed Whole Grains 73 Apeksha A. Gulvady, Robert C. Brown, and Jenna A. Bell 4.1 Introduction to oats as a cereal grain 73 4.2 Overview of the nutritional composition of oats 75 4.3 Conclusion 91 References 91 5 Oat Starch 95 Prabhakar Kasturi and Nicolas Bordenave 5.1 Introduction 95 5.2 Native oat starch organization: From the molecular to the granular level 96 5.3 Starch minor components, isolation, and extraction 104 5.4 Beyond native starch granule: Gelatinization, pasting, retrogradation, and interactions with other polysaccharides 107 5.5 Industrial uses 115 5.6 Conclusion and perspectives 116 References 116 6 Oat-Glucans: Physicochemistry and Nutritional Properties 123 Madhuvanti Kale, Bruce Hamaker, and Nicolas Bordenave 6.1 Introduction 123 6.2 Molecular structures and characteristics 124 6.3 Extraction 131 6.4 Solution properties 135 6.5 Oat-glucan nutritional properties 144 6.6 Conclusion and perspectives 158 References 159 7 Health Benefits of Oat Phytochemicals 171 Shaowei Cui and Rui Hai Liu 7.1 Introduction 171 7.2 Oat phytochemicals 172 7.3 Health benefits of oat phytochemicals: Epidemiological evidence 185 7.4 Summary 189 References 189 8 Avenanthramides: Chemistry and Biosynthesis 195 Mitchell L. Wise 8.1 Introduction 195 8.2 Nomenclature 196 8.3 Synthesis 197 8.4 Chemical stability 197 8.5 Antioxidant properties 199 8.6 Solubility of avenanthramides 200 8.7 Analysis of avenanthramides 201 8.8 Biosynthesis of avenanthramides 201 8.9 Victorin sensitivity 206 8.10 Environment effects on avenanthramide production 207 8.11 Hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA: Hydroxyanthranilate N-hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HHT) 209 8.12 Cloning HHT 211 8.13 Metabolic flux of avenanthramides 214 8.14 Localization of avenanthramide biosynthesis 216 8.15 Plant defense activators 218 8.16 False malting 219 8.17 Conclusion 221 References 222 PART IV: EMERGING NUTRITION AND HEALTH RESEARCH 9 The Effects of Oats and Oat-Glucan on Blood Lipoproteins and Risk for Cardiovascular Disease 229 Tia M. Rains and Kevin C. Maki 9.1 Introduction 229 9.2 Hypocholesterolemic effects of fiber 230 9.3 Hypocholesterolemic effects of oats and oat-glucan 231 9.4 Summary/Conclusions 233 References 233 10 The Effects of Oats and -Glucan on Blood Pressure and Hypertension 239 Tia M. Rains and Kevin C. Maki 10.1 Introduction 239 10.2 Dietary patterns and blood pressure 240 10.3 Oats and oat-glucan: Effect on blood pressure and hypertension 246 10.4 Conclusion 251 References 251 11 Avenanthramides, Unique Polyphenols of Oats with Potential Health Effects 255 Mohsen Meydani 11.1 Introduction 255 11.2 Avenanthramides, the bioactive phenolics in oats 256 11.3 Anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative activity of avenanthramides 258 11.4 Summary and conclusion 261 Acknowledgements 261 References 261 12 Effects of Oats on Obesity, Weight Management, and Satiety 265 Chad M. Cook, Tia M. Rains, and Kevin C. Maki 12.1 Introduction 265 12.2 Effects of oats and oat-glucan on body weight 266 12.3 Effects of oats on appetite 271 12.4 Possible mechanisms of action 274 12.5 Summary 276 References 276 13 Effects of Oats on Carbohydrate Metabolism 281 Susan M. Tosh 13.1 Introduction 281 13.2 Epidemiology 281 13.3 Mechanisms of postprandial blood glucose reduction 282 13.4 Clinical studies using whole oat products 284 13.5 Clinical studies using oat bran products 286 13.6 Clinical studies using oat-derived-glucan preparations 289 13.7 Dose response 289 13.8 Longer-term glucose control 291 13.9 Summary 292 References 293 14 Effects of Oats and -Glucan on Gut Health 299 Renee Korczak and Joanne Slavin 14.1 Oats and -glucan 299 14.2 Digestive health 299 14.3 Short chain fatty acids and fiber fermentability 301 14.4 Large bowel effects of whole grains 302 14.5 Fermentation of individual dietary fibers 303 14.6 Prebiotics 303 14.7 Other mechanisms underlying the effect of oats on gut function 306 14.8 Conclusion 306 References 307 15 Oats and Skin Health 311 Joy Makdisi, Allison Kutner, and Adam Friedman 15.1 History of colloidal oatmeal use 311 15.2 Oat structure and composition 312 15.3 Clinical properties 313 15.4 Clinical applications of oats 318 15.5 Side effects of oats 323 15.6 Conclusions 326 References 326 PART V: PUBLIC HEALTH POLICIES AND CONSUMER RESPONSE 16 Health Claims for Oat Products: A Global Perspective 335 Joanne Storsley, Stephanie Jew, and Nancy Ames 16.1 Introduction 335 16.2 Definition of health claims 336 16.3 Substantiation of health claims 338 16.4 Health claims and dietary recommendations for oat products 339 16.5 Benefits of health claims 346 16.6 Nutritional information and health claims: How can health claims ensure clarity versus confusion? 348 16.7 Considerations in conducting research for health claim substantiation 349 References 351 17 Oh, What Those Oats Can Do: Quaker Oats, the US Food and Drug Administration, and the Market Value of Scientific Evidence 1984 2010 357 Robert Fitzsimmons 17.1 Introduction 357 17.2 Wild oats: The oat bran craze 1988 1990 363 17.3 Brantastic voyage: Oats through dietetic history 364 17.4 Gruel intentions: The NLEA and Quaker's health claim 1990 1997 382 17.5 Cash crop: Leveraging scientific evidence 1997 2010 395 17.6 Conclusions 413 References 420 PART VI: FUTURE RECOMMENDATIONS 18 Overview: Current and Future Perspectives on Oats and Health 429 Penny Kris-Etherton 18.1 Chapter summaries 429 18.2 Relevance to the nutrition and dietetic communities and the medical profession 433 18.3 Future needs and recommendations 434 References 436 Index 439

Product Details

  • publication date: 27/12/2013
  • ISBN13: 9781118354117
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 464
  • ID: 9781118354117
  • weight: 1054
  • ISBN10: 1118354117

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