OFDM for Underwater Acoustic Communications

OFDM for Underwater Acoustic Communications

By: Shengli Zhou (author), Zhaohui Wang (author)Hardback

1 - 2 weeks availability

Description

A blend of introductory material and advanced signal processing and communication techniques, of critical importance to underwater system and network development This book, which is the first to describe the processing techniques central to underwater OFDM, is arranged into four distinct sections: First, it describes the characteristics of underwater acoustic channels, and stresses the difference from wireless radio channels. Then it goes over the basics of OFDM and channel coding. The second part starts with an overview of the OFDM receiver, and develops various modules for the receiver design in systems with single or multiple transmitters. This is the main body of the book. Extensive experimental data sets are used to verify the receiver performance. In the third part, the authors discuss applications of the OFDM receiver in i) deep water channels, which may contain very long separated multipath clusters, ii) interference-rich environments, where an unintentional interference such as Sonar will be present, and iii) a network with multiple users where both non-cooperative and cooperative underwater communications are developed. Lastly, it describes the development of a positioning system with OFDM waveforms, and the progress on the OFDM modem development. Closely related industries include the development and manufacturing of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) and scientific sensory equipment. AUVs and sensors in the future could integrate modems, based on the OFDM technology described in this book. Contents includes: Underwater acoustic channel characteristics/OFDM basics/Peak-to-average-ratio control/Detection and Doppler estimation (Doppler scale and CFO)/Channel estimation and noise estimation/A block-by-block progressive receiver and performance results/Extensions to multi-input multi-output OFDM/Receiver designs for multiple users/Cooperative underwater OFDM (Physical layer network coding and dynamic coded cooperation)/Localization with OFDM waveforms/Modem developments A valuable resource for Graduate and postgraduate students on electrical engineering or physics courses; electrical engineers, underwater acousticians, communications engineers

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Contents

Preface xvii Acronyms xix Notation xxiii 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Background and Context 1 1.1.1 Early Exploration of Underwater Acoustics 1 1.1.2 Underwater Communication Media 2 1.1.3 Underwater Systems and Networks 3 1.2 UWA Channel Characteristics 3 1.2.1 Sound Velocity 3 1.2.2 Propagation Loss 5 1.2.3 Time-Varying Multipath 7 1.2.4 Acoustic Propagation Models 10 1.2.5 Ambient Noise and External Interference 11 1.3 Passband Channel Input Output Relationship 11 1.3.1 Linear Time-Varying Channel with Path-Specific Doppler Scales 12 1.3.2 Linear Time-Varying Channels with One Common Doppler Scale 13 1.3.3 Linear Time-Invariant Channel 13 1.3.4 Linear Time-Varying Channel with Both Amplitude and Delay Variations 14 1.3.5 Linear Time-Varying Channel with Frequency-Dependent Attenuation 15 1.4 Modulation Techniques for UWA Communications 15 1.4.1 Frequency Hopped FSK 15 1.4.2 Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum 16 1.4.3 Single Carrier Modulation 17 1.4.4 Sweep-Spread Carrier (S2C) Modulation 18 1.4.5 Multicarrier Modulation 18 1.4.6 Multi-Input Multi-Output Techniques 19 1.4.7 Recent Developments on Underwater Acoustic Communications 20 1.5 Organization of the Book 20 2 OFDMBasics 23 2.1 Zero-Padded OFDM 23 2.1.1 Transmitted Signal 23 2.1.2 Receiver Processing 26 2.2 Cyclic-Prefixed OFDM 27 2.2.1 Transmitted Signal 27 2.2.2 Receiver Processing 28 2.3 OFDM Related Issues 28 2.3.1 ZP-OFDM versus CP-OFDM 28 2.3.2 Peak-to-Average-Power Ratio 29 2.3.3 Power Spectrum and Bandwidth 29 2.3.4 Subcarrier Assignment 30 2.3.5 Overall Data Rate 30 2.3.6 Design Guidelines 31 2.4 Implementation via Discrete Fourier Transform 31 2.5 Challenges and Remedies for OFDM 32 2.5.1 Benefits of Diversity Combining and Channel Coding 33 2.6 MIMO OFDM 36 2.7 Bibliographical Notes 38 3 Nonbinary LDPC Coded OFDM 39 3.1 Channel Coding for OFDM 39 3.1.1 Channel Coding 39 3.1.2 Coded Modulation 41 3.1.3 Coded OFDM 42 3.2 Nonbinary LDPC Codes 43 3.2.1 Nonbinary Regular Cycle Codes 44 3.2.2 Nonbinary Irregular LDPC Codes 45 3.3 Encoding 46 3.4 Decoding 48 3.4.1 Initialization 48 3.4.2 Variable-to-Check-Node Update 49 3.4.3 Check-to-Variable-Node Update 50 3.4.4 Tentative Decision and Decoder Outputs 51 3.5 Code Design 52 3.5.1 Design of Regular Cycle codes 53 3.5.2 Design of Irregular LDPC Codes 53 3.5.3 Quasi-Cyclic Nonbinary LDPC codes 55 3.6 Simulation Results of Coded OFDM 58 3.7 Bibliographical Notes 59 4 PAPR Control 63 4.1 PAPR Comparison 63 4.2 PAPR Reduction 65 4.2.1 Clipping 65 4.2.2 Selective Mapping 67 4.2.3 Peak Reduction Subcarriers 69 4.3 Bibliographical Notes 69 5 Receiver Overview and Preprocessing 71 5.1 OFDM Receiver Overview 72 5.2 Receiver Preprocessing 73 5.2.1 Receiver Preprocessing 73 5.2.2 Digital Implementation 74 5.2.3 Frequency-Domain Oversampling 77 5.3 Frequency-Domain Input Output Relationship 78 5.3.1 Single-Input Single-Output Channel 78 5.3.2 Single-Input Multi-Output Channel 79 5.3.3 Multi-Input Multi-Output Channel 80 5.3.4 Channel Matrix Structure 81 5.4 OFDM Receiver Categorization 82 5.4.1 ICI-Ignorant Receiver 82 5.4.2 ICI-Aware Receiver 83 5.4.3 Block-by-Block Processing 85 5.4.4 Block-to-Block Processing 85 5.4.5 Discussion 85 5.5 Receiver Performance Bound with Simulated Channels 85 5.5.1 Simulating Underwater Acoustic Channels 86 5.5.2 ICI Effect in Time-Varying Channels 86 5.5.3 Outage Performance of SISO Channel 87 5.6 Extension to CP-OFDM 88 5.6.1 Receiver Preprocessing 88 5.6.2 Frequency-Domain Input Output Relationship 89 5.7 Bibliographical Notes 89 6 Detection, Synchronization and Doppler Scale Estimation 91 6.1 Cross-Correlation Based Methods 92 6.1.1 Cross-Correlation Based Detection 92 6.1.2 Cross-Correlation Based Synchronization and Doppler Scale Estimation 96 6.2 Detection, Synchronization and Doppler Scale Estimation with CP-OFDM 99 6.2.1 CP-OFDM Preamble with Self-Repetition 99 6.2.2 Self-Correlation Based Detection, Synchronization and Doppler Scale Estimation 100 6.2.3 Implementation 101 6.3 Synchronization and Doppler Scale Estimation for One ZP-OFDM Block 103 6.3.1 Null-Subcarrier based Blind Estimation 103 6.3.2 Pilot-Aided Estimation 104 6.3.3 Decision-Aided Estimation 104 6.4 Simulation Results for Doppler Scale Estimation 104 6.4.1 RMSE Performance with CP-OFDM 105 6.4.2 RMSE Performance with ZP-OFDM 106 6.4.3 Comparison of Blind Methods of CP- and ZP-OFDM 107 6.5 Design Examples in Practical Systems 108 6.6 Residual Doppler Frequency Shift Estimation 110 6.6.1 System Model after Resampling 110 6.6.2 Impact of Residual Doppler Shift Compensation 111 6.6.3 Two Residual Doppler Shift Estimation Methods 112 6.6.4 Simulation Results 113 6.7 Bibliographical Notes 115 7 Channel and Noise Variance Estimation 117 7.1 Problem Formulation for ICI-Ignorant Channel Estimation 118 7.1.1 The Input Output Relationship 118 7.1.2 Dictionary Based Formulation 118 7.2 ICI-Ignorant Sparse Channel Sensing 120 7.2.1 Dictionary Resolution versus Channel Sparsity 121 7.2.2 Sparsity Factor 122 7.2.3 Number of Pilots versus Number of Paths 123 7.3 ICI-Aware Sparse Channel Sensing 124 7.3.1 Problem Formulation 124 7.3.2 ICI-Aware Channel Sensing 124 7.3.3 Pilot Subcarrier Distribution 125 7.3.4 Influence of Data Symbols 126 7.4 Sparse Recovery Algorithms 127 7.4.1 Matching Pursuit 127 7.4.2 1-Norm Minimization 128 7.4.3 Matrix-Vector Multiplication via FFT 129 7.4.4 Computational Complexity 131 7.5 Extension to Multi-Input Channels 131 7.5.1 ICI-Ignorant Sparse Channel Sensing 131 7.5.2 ICI-Aware Sparse Channel Sensing 132 7.6 Noise Variance Estimation 134 7.7 Noise Prewhitening 134 7.7.1 Noise Spectrum Estimation 135 7.7.2 Whitening in the Frequency Domain 136 7.8 Bibliographical Notes 136 8 Data Detection 137 8.1 Symbol-by-Symbol Detection in ICI-Ignorant OFDM Systems 139 8.1.1 Single-Input Single-Output Channel 139 8.1.2 Single-Input Multi-Output Channel 140 8.2 Block-Based Data Detection in ICI-Aware OFDM Systems 141 8.2.1 MAP Equalizer 142 8.2.2 Linear MMSE Equalizer with A Priori Information 142 8.2.3 Extension to the Single-Input Multi-Output Channel 145 8.3 Data Detection for OFDM Systems with Banded ICI 145 8.3.1 BCJR Algorithm and Log-MAP Implementation 145 8.3.2 Factor-Graph Algorithm with Gaussian Message Passing 148 8.3.3 Computations related to Gaussian Messages 149 8.3.4 Extension to SIMO Channel 150 8.4 Symbol Detectors for MIMO OFDM 151 8.4.1 ICI-Ignorant MIMO OFDM 151 8.4.2 Full-ICI Equalization 152 8.4.3 Banded-ICI Equalization 152 8.5 MCMC Method for Data Detection in MIMO OFDM 153 8.5.1 MCMC Method for ICI-Ignorant MIMO Detection 153 8.5.2 MCMC Method for Banded-ICI MIMO Detection 154 8.6 Bibliographical Notes 155 9 OFDM Receivers with Block-by-Block Processing 157 9.1 Noniterative ICI-Ignorant Receiver 158 9.1.1 Noniterative ICI-Ignorant Receiver Structure 158 9.1.2 Simulation Results: ICI-Ignorant Receiver 159 9.1.3 Experimental Results: ICI-Ignorant Receiver 160 9.2 Noniterative ICI-Aware Receiver 161 9.2.1 Noniterative ICI-Aware Receiver Structure 162 9.2.2 Simulation Results: ICI-Aware Receiver 163 9.2.3 Experimental Results: ICI-Aware Receiver 164 9.3 Iterative Receiver Processing 164 9.3.1 Iterative ICI-Ignorant Receiver 165 9.3.2 Iterative ICI-Aware Receiver 165 9.4 ICI-Progressive Receiver 166 9.5 Simulation Results: ICI-Progressive Receiver 168 9.6 Experimental Results: ICI-Progressive Receiver 171 9.6.1 BLER Performance 171 9.6.2 Environmental Impact 171 9.6.3 Progressive versus Iterative ICI-Aware Receivers 174 9.7 Discussion 175 9.8 Bibliographical Notes 175 10 OFDM Receiver with Clustered Channel Adaptation 177 10.1 Illustration of Channel Dynamics 177 10.2 Modeling Cluster-Based Block-to-Block Channel Variation 178 10.3 Cluster-Adaptation Based Block-to-Block Receiver 180 10.3.1 Cluster Offset Estimation and Compensation 181 10.3.2 Cluster-Adaptation Based Sparse Channel Estimation 184 10.3.3 Channel Re-estimation and Cluster Variance Update 186 10.4 Experimental Results: MACE10 186 10.4.1 BLER Performance with an Overall Resampling 187 10.4.2 BLER Performance with Refined Resampling 188 10.5 Experimental Results: SPACE08 190 10.6 Discussion 193 10.7 Bibliographical Notes 193 11 OFDM in Deep Water Horizontal Communications 195 11.1 System Model for Deep Water Horizontal Communications 196 11.1.1 Transmitted Signal 197 11.1.2 Modeling Clustered Multipath Channel 197 11.1.3 Received Signal 198 11.2 Decision-Feedback Based Receiver Design 199 11.3 Factor-Graph Based Joint IBI/ICI Equalization 200 11.3.1 Probabilistic Problem Formulation 200 11.3.2 Factor-Graph Based Equalization 202 11.4 Iterative Block-to-Block Receiver Processing 203 11.5 Simulation Results 205 11.6 Experimental Results in the AUTEC Environment 208 11.7 Extension to Underwater Broadcasting Networks 211 11.7.1 Underwater Broadcasting Networks 211 11.7.2 Emulated Experimental Results: MACE10 211 11.8 Bibliographical Notes 214 12 OFDM Receiver with Parameterized External Interference Cancellation 215 12.1 Interference Parameterization 215 12.2 An Iterative OFDM Receiver with Interference Cancellation 217 12.2.1 Initialization 219 12.2.2 Interference Detection and Estimation 219 12.2.3 Channel Estimation, Equalization and Channel Decoding 221 12.2.4 Noise Variance Estimation 221 12.3 Simulation Results 221 12.3.1 Time-Invariant Channels 222 12.3.2 Time-Varying Channels 223 12.3.3 Performance of the Proposed Receiver with Different SIRs 224 12.3.4 Interference Detection and Estimation 225 12.4 Experimental Results: AUTEC10 225 12.5 Emulated Results: SPACE08 227 12.6 Discussion 229 12.7 Bibliographical Notes 229 13 Co-located MIMO OFDM 231 13.1 ICI-Ignorant MIMO-OFDM System Model 232 13.2 ICI-Ignorant MIMO-OFDM Receiver 233 13.2.1 Noniterative ICI-Ignorant MIMO-OFDM Receiver 233 13.2.2 Iterative ICI-Ignorant MIMO-OFDM Receiver 234 13.3 Simulation Results: ICI-Ignorant MIMO OFDM 234 13.4 SPACE08 Experimental Results: ICI-Ignorant MIMO OFDM 237 13.5 ICI-Aware MIMO-OFDM System Model 237 13.6 ICI-Progressive MIMO-OFDM Receiver 237 13.6.1 Receiver Overview 239 13.6.2 Sparse Channel Estimation and Noise Variance Estimation 240 13.6.3 Joint ICI/CCI Equalization 240 13.7 Simulation Results: ICI-Progressive MIMO OFDM 241 13.8 SPACE08 Experiment: ICI-Progressive MIMO OFDM 242 13.9 MACE10 Experiment: ICI-Progressive MIMO OFDM 244 13.9.1 BLER Performance with Two Transmitters 244 13.9.2 BLER Performance with Three and Four Transmitters 246 13.10 Initialization for the ICI-Progressive MIMO OFDM 246 13.11 Bibliographical Notes 246 14 Distributed MIMO OFDM 249 14.1 System Model 250 14.2 Multiple-Resampling Front-End Processing 251 14.3 Multiuser Detection (MUD) Based Iterative Receiver 252 14.3.1 Pre-processing with Frequency-Domain Oversampling 252 14.3.2 Joint Channel Estimation 254 14.3.3 Multiuser Data Detection and Channel Decoding 255 14.4 Single-User Detection (SUD) Based Iterative Receiver 255 14.4.1 Single-User Decoding 255 14.4.2 MUI Construction 256 14.5 An Emulated Two-User System Using MACE10 Data 257 14.5.1 MUD-Based Receiver with and without Frequency-Domain Oversampling 258 14.5.2 Performance of SUD- and MUD-Based Receivers 258 14.6 Emulated MIMO OFDM with MACE10 and SPACE08 Data 260 14.6.1 One Mobile Single-Transmitter User plus One Stationary Two-Transmitter User 261 14.6.2 One Mobile Single-Transmitter User plus One Stationary Three-Transmitter User 262 14.6.3 Two Mobile Single-Transmitter Users plus One Stationary Two-Transmitter User 263 14.7 Bibliographical Notes 263 15 Asynchronous Multiuser OFDM 265 15.1 System Model for Asynchronous Multiuser OFDM 266 15.2 Overlapped Truncation and Interference Aggregation 267 15.2.1 Overlapped Truncation 267 15.2.2 Interference Aggregation 268 15.3 An Asynchronous Multiuser OFDM Receiver 269 15.3.1 The Overall Receiver Structure 269 15.3.2 Interblock Interference Subtraction 270 15.3.3 Time-to-Frequency-Domain Conversion 271 15.3.4 Iterative Multiuser Reception and Residual Interference Cancellation 273 15.3.5 Interference Reconstruction 274 15.4 Investigation on Multiuser Asynchronism in an Example Network 275 15.5 Simulation Results 276 15.5.1 Two-User Systems with Time-Varying Channels 277 15.5.2 Multiuser Systems with Time-Invariant Channels 279 15.6 Emulated Results: MACE10 281 15.7 Bibliographical Notes 284 16 OFDM in Relay Channels 285 16.1 Dynamic Coded Cooperation in a Single-Relay Network 285 16.1.1 Relay Operations 286 16.1.2 Receiver Processing at the Destination 288 16.1.3 Discussion 289 16.2 A Design Example Based on Rate-Compatible Channel Coding 289 16.2.1 Code Design 289 16.2.2 Simulation Results 291 16.3 A Design Example Based on Layered Erasure- and Error-Correction Coding 292 16.3.1 Code Design 292 16.3.2 Implementation 293 16.3.3 An Experiment in Swimming Pool 293 16.3.4 A Sea Experiment 296 16.4 Dynamic Block Cycling over a Line Network 299 16.4.1 Hop-by-Hop Relay and Turbo Relay 299 16.4.2 Dynamic Block-Cycling Transmissions 300 16.4.3 Discussion 302 16.5 Bibliographical Notes 302 17 OFDM-Modulated Physical-Layer Network Coding 303 17.1 System Model for the OFDM-Modulated PLNC 305 17.2 Three Iterative OFDM Receivers 306 17.2.1 Iterative Separate Detection and Decoding 306 17.2.2 Iterative XOR-ed PLNC Detection and Decoding 307 17.2.3 Iterative Generalized PLNC Detection and Decoding 309 17.3 Outage Probability Bounds in Time-Invariant Channels 309 17.4 Simulation Results 310 17.4.1 The Single-Path Time-Invariant Channel 311 17.4.2 The Multipath Time-Invariant Channel 311 17.4.3 The Multipath Time-Varying Channel 313 17.5 Experimental Results: SPACE08 314 17.6 Bibliographical Notes 315 18 OFDM Modem Development 317 18.1 Components of an Acoustic Modem 317 18.2 OFDM Acoustic Modem in Air 318 18.3 OFDM Lab Modem 318 18.4 AquaSeNT OFDM Modem 320 18.5 Bibliographical Notes 321 19 Underwater Ranging and Localization 323 19.1 Ranging 324 19.1.1 One-Way Signaling 324 19.1.2 Two-Way Signaling 324 19.1.3 Challenges for High-Precision Ranging 325 19.2 Underwater GPS 325 19.2.1 System Overview 325 19.2.2 One-Way Travel Time Estimation 326 19.2.3 Localization 327 19.2.4 Tracking Algorithms 329 19.2.5 Simulation Results 334 19.2.6 Field Test in a Local Lake 335 19.3 On-Demand Asynchronous Localization 336 19.3.1 Localization Procedure 337 19.3.2 Localization Algorithm for the Initiator 338 19.3.3 Localization Algorithm for a Passive Node 340 19.3.4 Localization Performance Results in a Lake 341 19.4 Bibliographical Notes 344 Appendix A Compressive Sensing 345 A.1 Compressive Sensing 346 A.1.1 Sparse Representation 346 A.1.2 Exactly and Approximately Sparse Signals 346 A.1.3 Sensing 346 A.1.4 Signal Recovery and RIP 347 A.1.5 Sensing Matrices 348 A.2 Sparse Recovery Algorithms 348 A.2.1 Matching Pursuits 349 A.2.2 1-Norm Minimization 349 A.3 Applications of Compressive Sensing 350 A.3.1 Applications of Compressive Sensing in Communications 350 A.3.2 Compressive Sensing in Underwater Acoustic Channels 351 Appendix B Experiment Description 353 B.1 SPACE08 Experiment 353 B.2 MACE10 Experiment 354 B.2.1 Experiment Setup 355 B.2.2 Mobility Estimation 356 References 359 Index 383

Product Details

  • publication date: 16/05/2014
  • ISBN13: 9781118458860
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 410
  • ID: 9781118458860
  • weight: 798
  • ISBN10: 1118458869

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