This volume provides both a quantitative statistical and qualitative analysis of Late Northumbrian verbal morphosyntax as recorded in the Old English interlinear gloss to the Lindisfarne Gospels. It focuses in particular on the attestation of the subject type and adjacency constraints that characterise the so-called Northern Subject Rule concord system. The study presents new evidence which challenges the traditional Early Middle English dating attributed to the emergence of subject-type concord in the North of England and demonstrates that the syntactic configuration of the Northern Subject Rule was already a feature of Old English. By setting the Northumbrian developments within a broad framework of diachronic and diatopic variation, in which manifestations of subject-type concord are explored in a wide range of varieties of English, the author argues that a concord system based on subject type rather than person/number features is in fact a far less local and more universal tendency in English than previously believed.
1. Acknowledgements; 2. List of figures; 3. List of tables; 4. Abbreviations; 5. 1. Introduction; 6. 2. Old Northumbrian; 7. 3. A Diachronic overview of the (Northern) Subject Rule; 8. 4. A variationist study of -s/-d present-tense markings in late Old Northumbrian; 9. 5. Reduced verbal morphology in late Old Northumbrian; 10. 6. Explaining subject and adjacency effects; 11. 7. Conclusions; 12. References; 13. Appendices; 14. Index