The olive oil market is increasingly international. Levels of consumption and production are growing, particularly in new markets outside the Mediterranean region. New features of product optimization and development are emerging, and along with them new marketing strategies, which benefit from a clear understanding of the sensory aspects of foods, as well as adequate sensory techniques for testing them. Recently developed sensory methods and approaches are particularly suitable for studying the sensory properties of olive oils and their function in culinary preparation or in oil-food pairing. Each chapter of Olive Oil Sensory Science is written by the best researchers and industry professionals in the field throughout the world. The book is divided into two main sections. The first section details the appropriate sensory methods for olive oil optimization, product development, consumer testing and quality control. The intrinsic factors affecting olive oil quality perception are considered, as well as the nutritional, health and sensory properties, underlining the importance of sensory techniques in product differentiation.
The agronomic and technological aspects of production that affect sensory properties and their occurrence in olive oil are also addressed. Sensory perception and other factors affecting consumer choice are discussed, as is the topic of olive oil sensory quality. The second part of this text highlights the major olive oil producing regions of the world: Spain, Italy, Greece, California, Australia/New Zealand and South America. Each chapter is dedicated to a region, looking at the geographical and climactic characteristics pertinent to olive oil production, the major regional olive cultivars, the principle olive oil styles and their attendant sensory properties. Olive Oil Sensory Science is an invaluable resource for olive oil scientists, product development and marketing personnel on the role of sensory evaluation in relation to current and future market trends.
Erminio Monteleone is Associate Professor of Sensory Food Science at the University of Florence, Italy. Susan Langstaff is a sensory scientist and leader of the U.C. Davis Olive Oil Taste Panel. She is the inventor of The Defects Wheel (R) for Olive Oil.
List of Contributors xiii Olive Oil Sensory Science: an Overview xv Erminio Monteleone and Susan Langstaff Part I 1 Quality Excellence in Extra Virgin Olive Oils 3 Claudio Peri 1.1 Introduction 3 1.2 Part 1. The standards of excellent olive oil 4 1.3 Part 2. The control of critical processing parameters 19 1.4 Part 3. The marketing of excellent olive oils 27 References 30 2 The Basis of the Sensory Properties of Virgin Olive Oil 33 Agnese Taticchi, Sonia Esposto, and Maurizio Servili 2.1 Sensory attributes of virgin olive oil 33 2.2 Agronomic and technological aspects of production that affect sensory properties and their occurrence in olive oil 42 2.3 Conclusion 49 References 50 3 Sensory Perception and Other Factors Affecting Consumer Choice of Olive Oil 55 Hely Tuorila and Annamaria Recchia 3.1 Introduction 55 3.2 The sensory system 56 3.3 Affective responses to salient sensory attributes of olive oil 63 3.4 Nonsensory aspects of consumer behavior 66 3.5 Conclusion 73 Acknowledgment 73 References 74 4 Sensory Quality Control 81 Susan Langstaff 4.1 Introduction 81 4.2 Historical perspective 81 4.3 Standard methods 83 4.4 Legislative standards 83 4.5 Parameters used to evaluate olive oil quality 84 4.6 Organoleptic assessment aroma and flavor 86 4.7 IOC taste panel development 86 4.8 IOC terminology for virgin olive oils 87 4.9 IOC profile sheet 91 4.10 Ring tests 91 4.11 IOC classification of olive oil grades 93 4.12 Other certification systems 95 4.13 Designing a sensory quality control program 98 4.14 New developments and future opportunities 98 4.15 Conclusion 105 References 106 5 Sensory Methods for Optimizing and Adding Value to Extra Virgin Olive Oil 109 Erminio Monteleone 5.1 Introduction 109 5.2 Perceptual maps 110 5.3 Conventional descriptive analysis 113 5.4 Alternative descriptive methods to conventional descriptive analysis 127 5.5 Perceptual maps from similarity data 130 5.6 Temporal aspects of sensory characteristics of olive oils: Time Intensity (TI) and Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS) 133 References 137 6 Consumer Research on Olive Oil 141 Claudia Delgado, Metta Santosa, Aurora G'omez-Rico, and Jean-Xavier Guinard 6.1 Introduction 141 6.2 Applications to olive oil 148 6.3 Conclusion 167 References 167 7 Sensory Functionality of Extra Virgin Olive Oil 171 Caterina Dinnella 7.1 Introduction 171 7.2 The Temporal Dominance of Sensation method 177 7.3 Comparing the sensory functionality of extra virgin olive oils with a varied sensory style 184 7.4 Conclusion 191 Acknowledgments 192 References 192 8 Investigating the Culinary Use of Olive Oils 195 Sara Spinelli 8.1 Introduction 195 8.2 Methodological approaches in the study of oil food pairing 198 8.3 An original approach to studying the sensory functionality of oils in culinary preparations 204 8.4 Conclusion 220 References 221 Part II 9 Olive Oils from Spain 229 Agust'y Romero, Anna Claret, and Luis Guerrero 9.1 Historical perspective 229 9.2 Geographic and climatic characteristics 230 9.3 Main sensory properties of Spanish olive oils 235 9.3.1 Main Spanish olive-growing areas 238 References 246 10 Olive Oils from Italy 247 Marzia Migliorini 10.1 Introduction 247 10.2 PDO and PGI extra virgin olive oils in Italy 250 10.3 Conclusion 267 References 267 11 Olive Oils from Greece 269 Vassilis Zampounis, Kostas Kontothanasis, and Efi Christopoulou 11.1 Historical perspective 269 11.2 Geographical and climatic characteristics 270 11.3 Overview of olive-producing regions 270 11.4 Messinia Kalamata 275 11.5 Sensory characteristics of the major Greek olive varieties 281 11.6 Three typical examples of sensory analysis 283 References 286 12 Olive Oils from California 289 Alexandra Kicenik Devarenne and Susan Langstaff 12.1 Overview of olive oils from California 289 12.2 California climate and geography 289 12.3 History 290 12.4 Consumption and production 291 12.5 Production systems 292 12.6 California designations of olive oils 293 12.7 Chemistry of California olive oils 293 12.8 Olive varieties in California 294 12.9 Olive oil regions in California 298 12.10 Conclusion 309 References 309 13 Olive Oils from Australia and New Zealand 313 Leandro Ravetti and Margaret Edwards 13.1 Overview of olive oil industry 313 13.2 Main chemical characteristics of olive oils 317 13.3 Principal olive varieties in Australia and New Zealand 321 13.4 Overview of olive growing regions and principal olive oil styles 325 13.5 Conclusion 334 Acknowledgments 335 References 336 14 Olive Oils from South America 337 Adriana Turcato and Susana Mattar 14.1 The origins of olive growing in South America 337 14.2 Olive growing in Argentina 338 14.3 Other olive-growing countries in South America 340 14.4 Brief geographic description of Argentina 344 14.5 Characterization of San Juan s olive oils 346 14.6 Sensory profiles 350 14.7 Correlations between sensory and chemical parameters 355 14.8 Conclusion 356 Acknowledgments 356 References 356 Further reading 356 Index 359