Beginning as a small protest to the industrialization of agriculture in the 1920s, organic farming has become a significant force in agricultural policy, marketing, and research. No longer dismissed as unscientific and counterproductive, organic techniques are now taken seriously by farmers, consumers, scientists, food processors, marketers, and regulatory agencies in much of the world. Organic farming is both dynamic and forward-looking but is also rooted in tradition. It is these traditions that can provide valuable starting points in debates over how organic farming should meet new challenges such as globalization, the emergence of new production techniques, and growing concern over equity and social justice in agriculture. Complementing general discussions with case histories of important organic institutions in various countries, this comprehensive discussion is the first to explore the development of organic agriculture.